Northern Gardener (Nov. book)


the grandma didn’t like germs…fried the pork chops to smithereens

alot of spraying and digging to keep the garden up to snuff

planting a fish head in a tomato planting hole does work well p.5

It’s all about the soil.

26 Chapter of gardening from A to Z.

I. Apples:

represent dream and desires

was it the king of fruit?

the fruit stored well

most apples grown in Minnesota died because of the cold P. 8

the apple gardener was growing for the great state of Minnesota

for growing apples: choose hardy varieties , plant apples in right soil and sun conditions.

be vigilant about diseases.

in the 1950’s dwarf trees arrived

once planted water everyday (first 4-6 weeks), then water 3-7 times a week for 12 weeks

most apple trees will bear fruit between 2-5 years

bees are needed for pollination

look out for rodent nibbling on tree

prune well and watch out for pests P. 12

spraying an apple tree once per year can lead to “good, smoothfruit”. P. 13.

most orchards will spray six or more times per year.

maybe use traps for pests.

II: basics (soil, sun, water, time)

Sun: plants need sun to grow

some vegetable gardens will produce good veggies with 5 hours of sun


best soil is fluffy (organic matter to suck up water) and allow roots to grow/move

do a pH test

if the soil sticks together it’s clay

soil should smell like it has life in it p. 19

start a compost pile P. 19

when in doubt add compost


Sprinkling has cause more roots to dry up, more mildew

watering lightly weakens most garden plants P. 19

the humidity it creates is good for the fungi

use rainwater P. 20

veggies need about 1 inch per week

keep water close to the soil, not on the leaves. P. 20

drill a hole in a five gallon bucket and place bucket in garden P. 20

III. Climate

coldest winter in 1874-75 avg. temp 4F

three important numbers:

cold hardness zone

frost free date

first frost date

refer to chart P.24

these dates will give the gardener a good feel on how climate works or the garden.

cold winter can suck the moisture out of shrubs and trees P. 25

use leaves or hay as mulch to insulate plants

snow insulates plants

states are about 2 degrees warmer now. P. 27

warm weather means higher dew points

plus higher humidity and precipitation

phenology you look at natural phenomenon (like salmon in lake Michigan)

list of natural causes P. 28

IV: Design

a planted house becomes a home P.29

Break yard into three areas

1. public

2. service

3. private

you house architecture influence landscape style

10 landscaping tips:

  1. plant your yard on paper first
  2. think about mowing your yard
  3. think masses and odd numbers
  4. think about views from the inside
  5. think foliage
  6. plan bloom
  7. think color
  8. eyesores
  9. plant for your reach
  10. start with the big stuff

Walkways 3-4 feet wide

need a focal point for the garden. I place where your eyes travel to.

V. Elms (and other trees for shade)

start of Dutch Elm disease? 1961

best trees to plant P. 40-41

Trees engage the public P. 42

a 1/3rd of an acre yard should have between 10-15 trees

  1. should be evergreen
  2. fruit
  3. shade trees

have a purpose for the tree you plant

An oak tree is good for pollinators P. 43

for a tree think about:

  1. it’s height
  2. growth speed
  3. its environment like soil

best time to plant a tree is in the fall P.44

water the tree reguularly

do a good job pruning. A poorly pruned tree has the tendency to die.

VI. Fruit

Growing fruit is one of the most rewarding process.

fruits grow best in the sun

likes rich organic matter

for cleaner strawberry’s spread mulch between plants

blueberries can be picked on the edges of pined forest or clearings

when growing remove the blossoms for the first two years for encouraging the plant to grow

have a net ready to protect them from birds. Also remove dead and disease branches

birds also like cherry trees

Plums become ripe in mid July-mid august

Growing Raspberries’ require sun and well drained soil

need to prune them

need a support structure to deter flopping of canes

Prune your gooseberry plant…any canes over 3 years old should be cut to the ground

Should only have 4 canes per plant

VII Gladiolus (and other bulbs)

corm is a type of bulb

corms extend the gardening season

spring bulbs are planted in the fall


  1. plant as many as you can
  2. plant spring bulbs in drifts or masses
  3. limit yourself to two colors P. 58

plant bulbs 6 inchesgrow basil apart

after cutting the blossom you should wait a couple hoursa for th flower to “harden uo” before using in a bouquete. P. 58

bulbs cure in about 3 weeks P.59. Shake off all the fungi powder

Dahlias should be planted in warm soil P. 59

when growing remove the first flowering bud

plant Dahlias in mid April

Hardy bulbs do not have to be removed from ground in winter P.60

Daylilies are not lillies P. 60

Martagons thrive in the North

look for a Claude Shride

VIII Herbs

herbs attract butterflies P. 62

easy to grow in containers

herbs need to be watered

grow basil and dill (which bees and catapillars enjoy)

maybe a dream herbs lavender

IX Invaders

P.70-1 have pest listed for garden

garden crritter chart is on P.73

decoy plant are those pest like but you don’t care about

the stickier the plant, the better

X Juniper and other conifers

Juniper are among the most adaptable evergreen

Very easy to grow

know your conifers: P. 76-8

  1. creeping
  2. low
  3. rounded
  4. columnar
  5. wide pyramid
  6. weeping
  7. Topiary

evergreens are slow growing plants

before buying make sure you have the space for it

you will have to baby the evergreen for the first couple of years

If your soil is not poor you probably do not have to fertilize

Pruning is the biggest care activity

P.80 gives chart of Minnesota native evergreens

XI Kraut

Bread and butter pickle recipes on P. 82-83

preserve vegetables

fermenting with salt at veggies

fermenting food promotes good gut health P. 84

once fermentation i complete to food should be put in refridge

otherwise can your veggies, use a pressure cooker, or freeze foods

3 rules for preservation

  1. use your best harvest
  2. used approved recipes for direction’
  3. label your work

XII: Lawns

lawns are important to the home landscape

mow about 1 every 10 days in the heart of summer P. 88

longer grass shades the roots P. 89

10 tips for a better looking yard P.89

grass grows from a crown (like a stem)

spraying the weeds is good for creeping charlie

need broad leaf herbicide (post emergent)

XIII Minnesota Tip

Tipping is the best way to get hybrid tea roses through the winter

rose picture of being prepared for winter P. 94

home roses put out their best bloom in June

A rose should be planted 18 inches deep and spread by 24 inchws

fill in the hole 1/2 way, abd then water, then fil in the rest

keep the rose fully watered for 10 days

for blloms:

  1. try some fertilizer
  2. use fish emulsion
  3. well rotted manure or nitrogen elements

Roses need about a inch of waters per week to survive

plant disease resistant roses

Say no to rose cone! P. 97

Don’t crush Japanese Beetles. The scent will attract more beetles

their like cycle is 6 weeks p. 97

maybe plant dill, yarrow? cosmos to influence insects to feed on these plants

XIV: Native Plants

they are easy to grow

they look “wild”

need to understand the condition of each native plant you grow

need limited care

normally have less diseases

natives attracts birds, butterflies, and insects

worried about pollinators

hybridizers are responding to native varieties

when shopping for plants pick out he “straight species”

synopsis of ten native plants P. 103-5 (prairie smoke)

XV: organic

in the 50s the answer to gardening questions always had to do with chemicals

being organic do we think about our garden being it’s own environmental system?

mulch garden to prevent weeds and save on water’

Tips for organic gardening P. 108-9

  1. start a new bed using the lasagna method
  2. plant a fisg head in your vegetables
  3. use cover crops to build soil
  4. invest in leaf shredder
  5. compost tea
  6. make sure composat pile is big enough
  7. plant a tree

XVI: Peonies (and other perennials)

A Peonies is native in China P. 110

they grow best in full sun

remember right plant…right place P. 111

tree peonies are woody?

ten easy perennials P. 114

perennial some take a long time to get germinated

most perennials sleep the year they are planted, growth is undergrounds. Then they will creep.

9 easy perennials P. 116

some perennials like to grow in the shade

perennials need fertilizations once or twice year 😦

big perennials might need stakes for support

dead heading tricks the plant so it will not feel it has not set any seed?

perennials look better if they are divided every couple of years

List of 10 heirloom perennials garden P. 120

XVII: Quercus (and other names)

XVII: Quercus (and other names)

it’s another name for an oak

it’s moonflower open its blooms at night

talk about the monkey plant

Carl Linnaeus knew plants for their healing properties’

each plant has two names

P. 124 has a chart of Latin lingo

XVIII: Rhododendrons

also azalas

this was breeded in the 1950s as landscape plants

it wasa cross bred in 1957

most popular is the P.J.M. from Massachusetts Nursey

P. 127 give a chart of deciduous shrubs for hedges

P. 128-9 is shrubs for bloom

rhododendron hold their leaves over winter

shrubs have much lower maintenance then perennials or annuals

XIX: Seeds:

The arrival of seed catalogs just after new years day

though, buying transplants makes sense

a seed is a plant embryo

P. 134 gives a DIY seed-starting mix

starting seeds indoor with lights

be able to rotate the tray when selecting a site

be able to see the indoor plant during the day

will need: containers, potting soil, and seed

for a container you need a hole for the water to drain

start seeds 5 weeks before the last frost

adjust the growing environment from indoors to outdoors

winter sowing seeds

Native plants can be sow in winter for stratification (crack the seed coat) P.138

create a mini-greenhouse with a gallon milk bottle (1/2 gallon) P. 138

XX: tomatoes

Indeterminate or determinate

indeterminate plants keep growing until frost sops them (like 11-footerrs) P. 141

determinate tomato’s grow to their mature size. P. 142

List of favorite tomato varieties is found on P. 142

growing season is too short in the north to plant tomato seed P. 143

tomatoes are grown in large containers 1 plant=5 gallon bucket

they like full sun

warm soil

grow inn late may/early june

tips for growing P. 145

need temp between 70-85 defgrees

if temp is greater than 90 degrees the flowers (blossoms) will fall off,

but will blosssom again when the temp. cools down

below 55 the growth will really slow down

when planting look at air circulation

plant upside down tomatos if you are short of space.

tomatoes need constant watering

when planting a tomatoes remove most of the leaves, leaving only a few on top????

by saving tomato seeds it would be a variety suited for your yard P. 147

book says for a bigger tomatoe you need to prune P. 147

lookout for blossom end rot P. 148-9

don’t forget to rotate crops per season

XXI: Undercover

Maybe keeep plants underground (2-3 feet) in a hotbed

or, make a cold frame P. 151

cold frames extend the growing season

with a cold frame you are keeping the plant/seed undercover

maybe have a glass greenhouse?

XXVII: Vegetables

a victory garden is for the immediate family

victory gardens in WWII provided 40% of US vegetable needs

home grown gardens are good for the taste test

good for teaching where the food comes from

vegetables need good soil for nutrients, sunlight, and water

also need good air circulation and beneficial insects

Soil: organic that drains well (choc. brown and many worms)

Sun: at least 6 hrs. per day

water: 1 inch per week. Water in the morning.

What to plant:

Greens: leaf lettuce

Onions: buy onion sets in spring, harvest when the tops flop over? :(.

cucumbers are ew radishes, beets, carrots: radish and beets are planted in April

Peas: plant once the soil is thawed, use humus rich soil

Beans: grown on a trellis, use pole beans. Plant seeds 1 inch deep.

Tips for growing veggies P. 162

beans increase the soils fertility

try red Russian kale

mulch the garden well

rotate crops

use trellis to have plants grow up and not out

cucumbers are easy yo grow

peppers: keep peppers warm using row covers

corn: when growing corn…if you have different types they need to be spaced/spread out

corn likes hot weather, about three weeks after the weeks after the silks appear….Harvest p.164

XXIII: Weeds

know your weeds P.167

birds poop to spread seed P.168

weedless garden P. 169


water plants, not beds

stay out of garden

don’t turn soil too much

common weeds P.171

clover: adds nitrogen to the plant

weeds steel from the plants you are trying to grow

you need to prevent weeds from appearing

if you have to, use a herbicide.

XXIV: Xeriscaping

light sprinkles of water do more harm than good

rain gardens have increased in population

before you set up a rain garden, watch how the water flows

water wise plants P. 175

Minnesota has a native cactus p176

Group plants for their watering needs

XXV: Yellow

yellow’s is cheerful

Color tips P. 179

use the hot or cold technique greens and blues or red and orange

for colors think foliage first then flowers

colors are personal p.182

XXVI: Zinnias (and other annuals)

zinnias are the most satisfyingly of annuals

blloms between 2-4 months P. 183

table showing easiest annuals to grow from seed P. 184

zinnnias are not hardy in northern gardens

maybe staart indoor by late april for an earlier bloom p. 184

zinnias need no special soil/sheet talking about container basics is on P.187

annuals want sun, water, and fertilizer

deadheading encourages plant to keep putting out flowers P. 190


Minnesota horticulture


Gatherling Moss (oct. book)

by Robin Wall Kimmerer

Preface: Seeing the world through moss-colored glasses. Amazed with starry crystals.

The Standing Stones

Moss is a intricacy with the landscape. Let’s learn about the history/relationship we have with mosses.

why do mosses form on rocks? or glacier boulders

Rocks do have a story (knowledge of the rock territory) moss have the earths story

A bear has plant knowledge??

moss knows each rocks structure.

Mosses have their own name.

Learning to See

it’s 2 dimensional view from the airplane

we know the limits of our vision

we try to see what is beyond us

if you want to find something don’t go out and look for it P.8

talk about neuro pathways??

mosses is like listening rather than seeing P. 10

the author teaches biology in the summer

mosses are not know by the general public

mosses are the most simple of plants.

  1. they have no vascular system

2. no flowers



no roots

mosses are little, there are advantage of being small

mosses are small because they lack the supporting system to hold themselves upright P. 14

occur in takes and streams

22,000 species (fills in empty spaces)

life is limited to the shade P.15

the surface changes the quality of the air. Like air speed.

mosses grow only when they are moist P.18

Mosses live in the boundary layer P. 18

it’s advantageous to live in the boundary layer p. 18-19 résistance to airflow

mosses reproduce by spores P. 19

Back to the Pond

fresh water likes green alge

water provided all the need to reproduction’ Look out for drying pond!

the moss started the protective womb process

moss sperm is many, they are week swimmers. They (sperm) last for about an hour

young mosses grow on there parents

moss reproduction in minor on dry land

they reproduce without sex … evolution P. 27

Sexual Asymmetry and Satelite Sisters

NPR with sister spread throughout the world

relating these sisters to mosses

Dicranum moss

An Affinity for Water

the water help provide water to the oaks in a draught P. 35

art of waiting mosses must be awash in moisture P. 36

the moss dries with no rain

mosse can lose 98% of moisture and still live

a dry moss can not photosynthesis p. 37

could be 300 stems per inch

concave leaf pockets hold a thin film of water

mosses change appearance when drying P. 42

Binding up the Wounds

the role of mosses in ecological succession for thesis paper P. 46

when leaves are wet, the moss turns the leaf into “solar panel” for photosynthesis p. 47

In the Forest of the Waterbear

a stereo microscope is used to look under leaves P.53

you need to take eye, ears, and a machete into the forest

mosses are good for algae

1 gram of moss produces P.55 all the life in moss

predator’s like to use moss for camouflages

part of “lack of life” P.60


author uses duck tape for her canoe

Kickapoo is a river in south Wisconsin (drift less area)

Elevation changes the moss heighte

saw Fissiden moss in the Kickapoo river

liverworts for medical needs appear with this moss

The author had a floating lab in the river

talk of vertical stratification for her study

was working with the corps’ of Engineers for more data

mosses work well with a disturbance to become established


talking with neigborr P. 69

talk of reproductive effort P. 70 sexual reproduction, her neighbor is using sexual reproduction for her cows

with mosses talk about natural selection P. 72

only the most fit servive.

live stock = dead stock

for a gemmae a plant =800,000 spores

natural selection could mean 1/2 of cell could be completely opposite P.76

no pattern without a meaning

the author started to think like a moss when doing her study

she kept notes for a square centimeter location

300 stems per centemetere P. 78

crowding seems to trigger sexual reproduction

she wanted to change the density of the pod

farming is sort of like moss spores P. 80

A Landscape of Chance

chance after a storm

is this an opportunity?

for ecology does the rules for big = small size

two species on a lo have to have different “floors” to survive

slug slim likes to be on the rocks (or on the moss)

slugs we drawn out with beer!

City Mosses

like statues


grave stones


abandon railroad cars and/or autos


row in cities

or, chemical free moss

mosses can;t kill grass


local rainfall promotes moss

MOSSES CLEAN WATER p. 96 waste water

also air pollution silver dioxide hurts moss (moss leaf) P.97

mosses can be used to check out air quality

The web of Reciprocity

each person has a gift, you need to care for one another!

How do we use moss?

know a plants name for true connection.

be consistent with the comings and going of the plant

treatment of poison ivy P. 106

mosses were used for diapers (what technology) P. 106 like Pampers

dry moss for sanitary needs (napkins)

mosses not used for food but was used for prep.

salmon wiping was done with mosses

The Red Sneaker

mosses like bogs (bog ponds)

author lost her red sneaker on a bog! P. 112-3

the bog is like a sponge P. 115

a sponge for nutrients P. 115

Portrait of Splachnum

some moss only live on copper P. 121

some on trees or limestone

nitrogen economy P. 122

Author gets an consulting gig

moss was to be added to a golf course P.130

they want a colony of moss on a rock

can mosses be transported?

relocation of a moss is not appropriate P. 131

Making a moss milkshake

it could take years to grow moss

the author got introduced to rock/stone cutters

She felt as though she was a “hired gun”

was she part of destruction?

the owner of the project was inviable! P. 138

the owner wanted control

the owner loves mosses

Roundup was used to protect the mosses P. 140-1

mosses helps in the construction of a rain forest P. 141

mosses collect much water in a rain P.142

need a forest to hold water P. 144

more mosses means more humidity P. 145

we need the humility to live like mosses P. 151

tearing moss of the bark and putting it into a burlap bag. P. 152 (like a woman being rapped)

there is legally moss harvest, it’s expected that the limit is exceeded by 30% P. 154

it’s a unsustainable harvest P. 155

Straw into Gold

some mosses needs full sunlight to survive P. 158

photosynthesis is putting /making straw into gold P. 159

do plants come when they are needed? P. 161

No-Dig Gardening Sept. book

A change has been made where we are meeting at Mary’s Market in Edgebrook Center the 20th of September

A lush, productive vegetable, herb, and flower garden doesn’t have to require endless hours of time and unlimited energy. No-dig gardening methods let you keep the rototiller in the shed and focus on what you like best—planting and harvesting! 
With the step-by-step instructions in The Complete Guide to No-Dig Gardening, you’ll discover how to

it’s 128 pages

author:  Charlie Nardozzi

The Complete Guide to No-Dig Gardening: Grow beautiful vegetables, herbs, and flowers – the easy way! Layer Your Way to Healthy Soil-Eliminate tilling … garden naturally-Reduce weeding and watering



Us humans are always digging in the soil

no dig gardening is good for the soil

use deep mulch

Use Straw bale, or keyhole gardening

talk of no-dig beds

use compost and potting soil

Lesson impact of planet using no-dig gardening

Chapter 1

The benefits of no-dig gardening:

  1. more productive garden with less work
  2. reduce global warming
  3. reduce stress and anxiety P. 8
  4. more earth friendly
  5. reduce weeding
  6. digging kills micro organism
  7. tilling could mean a more compact soil
  8. tilling is good for about 1 foot

No dig helps the planet

  1. it’s less work
  2. gathering/laying bed material
  3. use raised bed with organic material
  4. less walking in garden beds means little compaction

Chapter 2

Gardens means soil!

need to know drainage

soil is living organism, crushed rock, water, air, and top soil and humus

5-10% of organic matter.

check soil for clay, sand, or silt

water drains slow

it’s also the most fertile

40% cxlay, 40% sand, 20% silt

Soil tests

ribbon test

jar test

hole draining test

hardpan metal rod test

soil pyramid on page 19

need to know ph factor of you dirt

Health soil contains humus

organic lets a plants root grow deep

holds soil in place

organic matter is the heart of the soil

encouraging earth worms to dig

on page 24 they talk about organic matter

Discuss Biochar

it’s black carbon

increase nutrient uptake

sequester carbon

it’s an old practice

research is ongoing

Chapter 3 Building a no dig garden from scratch

Siting the garden

needs to be in full sun

look at drainage issues

no dig gardens are raised up from ground level

Build a frame

Free-Standing No-Dig Garden Beds: Three methods

layers of organic materials

use mulch

or compost

in your layer alternate green and brown materials, but not so exact as a well constructed compost pile.

on page 32 a chart tells about layering a no-dig bed

maybe farm worms for compost.

compost and top soil

page 68 talks about building your own compost

chop and drop strategy on page 69

ideas for beds on page 41

Can adapt you no-dig garden to concrete or rocky soil P.45

use hardware cloth at the bottom

build 1 foot

create a branch layer

soil 10-12 inches

use cardboard for weeds, or use a plastic or growing tarp

growinfg a 3 foot bed defers weeeds

Chapter 4 Converting an existing garden to no-dug

State of existing garden

find out what’s not working

like poor production

compacted soil, roots can’t grow adequately

page 53 talks about cover crops use radishes

page 52 is a step by step process

add 2inches of compost yearly

weeds produce organic matter to build up soil

keep be well watered

green manure is grown in growing season….use cover crops used to build up the soil

compost is key to a no-dig bed

p. 68 talk about building a compost pile

Gardening clean up: you need to trop and drop at seasons end

use a shade cover to protect plants from the heaChaptee=r 6 Variation of no-dig gardening

  1. straw bale gardening (bales will smoother any weeds)

hay has weed seeds

nitrogen fertilizer and water p.77 takes about 2 weeks

20-20-20 fertilizer is recommended also 5-5-5

sticks is good for the soil and the enviroment

2. talk about building mounds

3. Keyhole gardening raised bed needs little water p. 82

design p. 84 building a a keyhole garden

refer to page 31 and 36 for layering

chapter 7 the original no-dig garden

soil mixes: need organic fertilizer

add compost

lots of soil mixes for a container

3 types of mixes:

  1. seed starting mixes
  2. potting mixes
  3. special plant mixes

potting soil is good for no-dig gardeners

Recipes on p.94 for organic potting soil

Mycorrhizae is important but its for your potting mix

organic soil mix ingredient are on page 94

Looking at container gardening

matching your pot with your plant P.99

What to plant

single, fillers, flowers, seasonal

Use organic potting mix

Nature of Oaks by Doug Tallamy (Aug. 2021 book)


son not stung by a paper wasp

oaks are slow growers, produce great roots. up to 3X the diameter if the canopy

don’t like high nitride fertilizer (white oaks)

can drop 3 million acorn it its life time

You need oak trees for the health of your yard

oaks support life monthly tally


blue jays bring oak acorns into your property

jays can plant over 4,500 acorns and can remember about 1/4 of them

sometimes an animal will visit a tree once per year

blue jays were bringing seeds to his property

a long list of animals like acorn (from oak plants)

Oaks are wind pollinated. Female plants on oaks need to be open.

talk about masting (food supply) For “pollination”

making acorns takes lots of energy


look out for acorn weevils (appears to have a large nose)

a weevil puts a larval into the side of an acorn

ants use acorns for their colony


Why do oaks hold their leaves

nature is complicated

talk about browsing animals

eating live leaves with dead noisy leaves

traps more snow creates more nutrients


there are caterpillars on oak trees in winter

sun flower seeds are not the best

finches and doves need bird seeds

song birds need insects

insects are produced by plants

insect decline means bird decline

host plant specialization

some caterpillars can only eat oak leaves (dager moth)

you need keystone plants to support more life.

hundreds of species were found on an oaks property.

oaks support more cattepillars

they have adapted to the oak


Quiet times of year

yard planting

oak size (most) are like understory trees) dwarf type oaks (native resident)

look for the depth of the roots (deep rooted)


Now, most leaves have fallen from the oak trees

talk of litter mites

nematodes are the most animals on earth.

plant collect energy from sun that’s used for soil energy

jumping worms in soil – eat all organic material

leaf burning will turn property in a “dead zone”

leaves are good for mulch


oak buds open

hundreds of thousand buds

Ants have a sweet tooth and is also a good protector

discuss galls

oaks are wind pollinated (for acorns)

moths need native plants to eat once born


birds that migrate to oak trees (P. 71)

they eat at the oaks

birds can fly 300 miles per night

birds like the fresh insects

there are 650 species if birds that breeds.

they get their energy from eating insects

birds need insects and spiders

caterpillars are like walking leaves

gypsy moths kill oak plants

Oak leaf shape is at it’s max by mid-May

Leaves need carbon to make sugar (??) for photosynthesis

leaves at the bottom of the tree is because of shading


Cicadas is like a tree hopper (like a grasshopper) either 13 or 17 years


tree hoppers breeding P.92

some insects only lay on “batch” of newborn P.93

Caterpillars in June is at its Nadar in June

oaks support 897 species of moths

collecting a caterpillar can be notched off a branch by just tapping

a bird shoots for the head of an insects for a quick kill

dead leaves are not good for leaf litter? The life of every creature is their blood P. 101


mistletoe is questionable to oaks P. 103

more talk about moths P. 105

talk about katydids and mating (they sit in oak trees)

talk about natural selection for katydids (they can’t fly in the fall)

talk of slugs, saddlebacks, and other caterpillars (author like the larvae)

look for the yellow-neck caterpillar in July

Acorn size:

small is too dry

intensity of competition (parrie plants)

size produced is the relationship with animals and environment


have heavy rain (good for oaks)

healthy ecosystem

watershed management

scrub water clean it will evaporate

Fixes carbon issues produces the most hard wood

fast growing trees will take carbon out of the atmosphere

thus we need large trees…we need to plant oaks

healthy oaks will grow for the next 300 years

Leaf miners on oaks are little moths

caterpillars are good for prey items

page 130

caterpillars look like damaged oak leaves, or like twigs

discussed lace bugs p. 136

lace bugs are excellent jumpers??

most animals don’t think anything about child care

male wasps have no stingers, but females do!


Oak leaves are the lowest nutrient of the year

walking sticks look like real sticks P. 143

they move like a stick, it quivers and shakes like a normal stick

need leaf litter for the caterpillars life cycle for development

a “snowy tree” cricket is common on oak trees

an equation was written about the chirping of crickets p. 148

seeds are the most abundant in September

bird take seed and hides them for later use

Jays like to feast on these hidden seeds

The oak trees are “on the rope” they are diminished in numbers

talk of browsers and prairie plant fields

we need to start the process of returning the action of extinction…what supports us!

Second Nature: a Gardeners Education (Re-read from 2018)

May 2021 discussion:

nature and culture could work together

talk about removing a woodchuck that hurts your garden

discussion of your lawn by your neighbor

chapter 1

bought house on long island (authors father)

A Gardner is looking for soil as much as plants

you can’t print more land

front yard is the key to your landscape

we need a democratic landscape for the neighbors

A forest was changed into a yard

start of the circular driveway

the father had a remote control yard (the controller was is his boxers)

Jimmy grew pot at a marihuana plant

hippies in a vegetable garden

Chapter 2 pest in the garden

author was using herbicide

looking for the woodchuck borrow

the author did not put up a fence. He thought a fence was out of landscape deesires

talk of loosestrife on p. 41

the woodchuck ignored the dead woodchuck that was crammed into the borrow

thousands of weed seeds are jump hanging around for the optimum time to germinate p.46

lawn grows great desire/with human intervention p.48

now trying to use an electric fence

nature has a much better solution to pests than humans p. 53

Chapter3 Why Mow?

lawns are primed in the US

trouble with lawns could have neighbor issues

mowing your yard is for civil disobedience of your yard

The Cooks Herb Garden (April book)

A Good Referance book

Talk of planting herbs is pots and baskets (7)

discussed everyday essentials (8) I like cilantro

Salad herbs (10) Dill

Mediterranean pots in free draing soil (12) Thyme & basil

Have always liked zinc (Middle Eastern garden)

zinc container (15)

herbal teas the most elegant and flavosome teas (18)

I didn’t think an onion was a herb (20) or garlic/chives

talk of growing dill (22-3)

Cilantro (35)

Cumin (35)

Citrus is also an herb? (36)

Oregano (54)

Dandelions alsoman herb? (68)

To Grow you need to be aware of the climate

no your hardy and frost hardy herbs (76)

there are also half hardy herbs and herbs that like wet soil (78)

list of invasive herbs (80)

Try growing a few herbs in a pot (80)

Designing a herb bed and finding their partners (83)

Saving the earth and making compost (85)

talk of growing from seed and transplanting (87)

instructions on how you should pot/grow young plants (88)

direction of propagation of herbs (90)

watring and feeding herbs in pots (92)

discussses “solarizing for weed control (94)

Discussed pruning (96)

talk of pests (98)

diseases (100)


leaves are the most commonly used part of the plant (105)

Discuss storage of herbs: in fridge,freezer, ice cube trays(108-11)

you need to dry to preserve the flavor of the herb (114)

instruction on how to braid garlic (118)


pre your harvest (122-7)

Use a combination of chopped herbs and soft buttter for more aroma (130)

receipis for rubs and coating were given (136-141)

an even put them ina marinades (142-45)

Even recipe for salsas (147)

Talk of the dandelion salad (151)

Dressing for slas was also discussed (156)

Herbs on Pesto (159)

making cold & hot sauces (161-65)

Herbs for soups (167-69)

Topping for a baked dish (171-73)

New to me Cordials!

Herbal teas (178-85)

Partner charts for food with herb (186-189)

Essential Oils for Beginners

from an audible (chapter 3)

for thousand of years people have been using these oils for healing, sooth digestive, create a taste, help a minor wound. They are natural and good for the family

funamnetals of essential oil

essential oils are plant extracts, they carry the extraction from their leaves, roots, etc.

brief history: 1800 BC essential oils were used for healing purposes

ancient Egyptians used essential oils (they were sacred)

3000 BC could have 700 oils

essential oils are listed in the new and old testement 200 times

used for anointment, or for gifts

Working on different blends to help remidies for the plague.

1910 French chemist after exposition used essential oil to cure gangrene.

E.O. has healing properties

good for migraines, head aches, controlling flees

many bacteria die with the connection to essential oils

The power is that the oil has 100 substances that help provide solar energy supply. For nourishing and healing

Electotherapy uses polorization. Polorized light therapy. EO has an impact on the electromagnetic field

good for metabilizim and healing

each cells have electrons they move in circulatory means for healing

posiitve for blood circulation it benefits the entire body and the brain

E.O. can be used in blends

use wintergreen to help reduce pain

peperment is used to promote a feeling of well being

can use clove for inflamation,

Can be made for: cleaning detergent

In dark ages Aroma Theapy was aassociated with witchcraft

aroma works on scent, could feel excited, stress relief, or have strong memories

Aroma could be for spiritual well being (like frankensense)

Essential oils are not extracted with water (don’t mix)

expression is the mosst dierect method…it is “pressed”

least is using solvents. theraoist shy away from this methode

absolutes are taken by solents

plant interaction with co2. c they smell as the plants it’s taken from

steam distalation

water does not mix with essential oil

melting fat and stiring in botanic cells

all oil are not created equal

3 characteristic

  1. grade
  2. purity
  3. integraty

4 grades of lemon

12 grades of laendor esential oil

higher grads has a better fragrance

grades are different from candy makers to aroma therapy


look out for dolution of essential oil


comes from a selected plant from same region and/or harvest

buying and storing essential oils selecting a good source

price differences: 600lb of rose petal for 1 oz. of oil, jazmon oil is also very expensive

low quality oil

you must store in glass bottles, not plastic

properly stored it will last for years

keep away from heat or light.

use caution with essential oils

double water intake/stay away from plastic bottles

in eyes: warm water, flush with milk and veggie oils

Holistic health method

Chapter 3 Blending esential oils

have to decide what you want this oil to do

chemical reactions will change with the mix of oils

fragrances/perfume were top of the list in history

two rules for blending E.Os

  1. thinner oils are absorbed more quickly (think molecule)
  2. For thicker – body absorbs slowly in the body

lighter oils are top notes

also in the middle are base notes

heaviest are the middle notes

use equalizer

  1. personified 8-10/5

2. enhancer 50-80% of blend

3. equalizer 10-44% of blend

4. Modifiers added last 5-8% of blend (adds harmony)

carrier oil, passion oil …use natural oil

sun flower is is a carrier oil (mixed for texture)

making small batches will prevent waste

follow instructions for deluting

less is more for blending essential oils

How to use:

have a purpose

make sure oil is right for purpose

look out for side affects


  1. inhalation
  2. injection
  3. topical

major effect can be inhaled

breath in/out from bottle or cloth 3 times.

can stimulate the brain

some essential oils can be taken to detoxify the body

peperment is the best for cold soars

essential oils push toxens from the bodies cell

other ways are using humidifiers (like a desfuser

could use dry evaporation

lemon is used to detoxify.

could use a humidifier

or, dry evaporation

ten tools for essential oils are:

Use a blend for only 3 days, then switch

  1. pression droppers
  2. DARK color containers
  3. non metallic tolls for mixing
  4. simple glass bowels
  5. glass funnal
  6. 1 carrier oil
  7. diffuser best tool for E.O.
  8. glass spray bottle
  9. place to keep bottles
  10. labels (mark blends)

less is more

blending essential oils becomes common

Chapter 5

for ailments

basil is for

clear mind

try cinnamon essential oil one of the oldest E.O. also embalming the deceased

clove is a middle note (skin cancer…self worth) don’t inhale or provide to skin

Chapter 6

Frankincense brings on inner calm

in bible 52 times

motivation needs

it could be cold pressed

good for Alzheimer, boost mood like grapefruit E.O. for meditation, maybe add a drop to a bottle of wine

holy basil: “top note”

this helps mental celerity


  1. infest
  2. diffusion
  3. inhaled
  4. ingested
  5. skin topical

Lavender is the most popular E.O.

Lemon “top note”

sense of joy!

dilute E.O. before putting into carrier oil

E.O. was used in WWII for tropical issues

maybe mandarin?


sweet orange is cold pressed “top note”

50% diluted?

can also reduce anger

a calming spray or anti-inflammatory (roman Cana meal EO)

maybe rosemary (for mental fatigue) can use undeleted symbol of love/wealth

Tea tree is a “middle note” dilute before using

Chapter 7 (for ailments)

soothing baby oil

use lavender essential oil mix

natural daiper rash essential oil

preventing flu essential oil mix

lavender is good for joint pain

mix for sore throat spray

could make a sore throat gargle

use ginger with you tea of your choice (relief of congestion)

room spray a natural disaffection cold spray

for cuts, wound, bruises use Cyprus mix

speed healing (Save)

use lavender balm

athlete foot balm Tea tree, lavender, and carrier oil

clove oil combined with carrier oil [toe nail fungus]

lemon juice is good for hangovers

muscle pain….acts as a supplement to medication

for sore muscles!

general aches and pain

for indigestion peppermint oil

Chapter 8 *****

calm spray



use a spray bottle! 1oz. with distilled water

also foot massage blend

frankincense is a mood booster/uplifting spirit (lemon grass)

Chapter 9 (7)

E.O. for the skin

many types of shampoo and conditioner

spa facial

discussed using yogurt and other items to create a “mask” or some facial toner

weed diffuser

chapter 10 (8)

use of air fresheners

mosquito repellant

care for pets

Aroma Therapy Notes (from practice)

Notes from therapists from the Madison VA:

It seems that Lavender works pretty good for you, but not so much the sweet orange and rosemary. I know that Jaclyn had planned to work with you, on some clinical Aromatherapy when you saw her. Thank you for keeping such a great log. It seems as if taking that time for yourself, being in the present moment and recognizing where your breath is worked out pretty well. In the meantime, I would use just the Lavender, towards the end of the night, when you are preparing for bed. Some EO’s can give you headaches and such if you are using to much, so please make sure you are using just a few drops, enough to have benefit from the oil, but not so much that it overtakes an area. If you like the smell of the Sweet Orange, that is a good oil for areas that you want to improve overall smell ( especially smoky type smells). Sweet Orange is what we call a Top Note EO. What that means is it does evaporate very fast and can do wonders with it’s anti-viral properties. They are light, fresh and uplifting in nature. Top notes are highly volatile though, fast acting, and give the first impression of the blend. However, they are not very long lasting, as you may know.

For starters our sense of smell is estimated to be 10,000 times more acute than other senses. Once Aromas are registered, scent travels faster to the brain than both sight or sound.

Aromas can trigger emotional and even physical responses and allow vivid memory recall of people and places. Think of a time a smell has reminded you of something… Maybe your favorite place, a loved one or even a childhood memory. This is because the sense of smell is linked to some of the oldest and deepest parts of the brain.

The physical structures of smell found in the nose and brain are together called the Olfactory system. The sense of smell is a dynamic sense, its effect is not constant but immediate and then it fades.

Aromatic molecules are volatile meaning that they become gases and spread quickly. We inhale them with the air we breathe which is the first step to detecting an aroma, when the molecules connect with hair like cilia in our nose, the olfactory cells produce a nerve impulse which reaches the Limbic System. The Limbic system is one of the most primitive parts of the brain concerned with survival instincts and emotions. Scientists believe that the activity of the nerve signals passing through this region cause mood change by altering brain chemistry.

The nerve impulse eventually passes beyond the Limbic system to the Olfactory cortex, located towards the back of the brain. Here, the aroma will finally be recognized but by this time the brain and body will already have responded to it.