Aroma Therapy Notes (from practice)

Notes from therapists from the Madison VA:

It seems that Lavender works pretty good for you, but not so much the sweet orange and rosemary. I know that Jaclyn had planned to work with you, on some clinical Aromatherapy when you saw her. Thank you for keeping such a great log. It seems as if taking that time for yourself, being in the present moment and recognizing where your breath is worked out pretty well. In the meantime, I would use just the Lavender, towards the end of the night, when you are preparing for bed. Some EO’s can give you headaches and such if you are using to much, so please make sure you are using just a few drops, enough to have benefit from the oil, but not so much that it overtakes an area. If you like the smell of the Sweet Orange, that is a good oil for areas that you want to improve overall smell ( especially smoky type smells). Sweet Orange is what we call a Top Note EO. What that means is it does evaporate very fast and can do wonders with it’s anti-viral properties. They are light, fresh and uplifting in nature. Top notes are highly volatile though, fast acting, and give the first impression of the blend. However, they are not very long lasting, as you may know.

For starters our sense of smell is estimated to be 10,000 times more acute than other senses. Once Aromas are registered, scent travels faster to the brain than both sight or sound.

Aromas can trigger emotional and even physical responses and allow vivid memory recall of people and places. Think of a time a smell has reminded you of something… Maybe your favorite place, a loved one or even a childhood memory. This is because the sense of smell is linked to some of the oldest and deepest parts of the brain.

The physical structures of smell found in the nose and brain are together called the Olfactory system. The sense of smell is a dynamic sense, its effect is not constant but immediate and then it fades.

Aromatic molecules are volatile meaning that they become gases and spread quickly. We inhale them with the air we breathe which is the first step to detecting an aroma, when the molecules connect with hair like cilia in our nose, the olfactory cells produce a nerve impulse which reaches the Limbic System. The Limbic system is one of the most primitive parts of the brain concerned with survival instincts and emotions. Scientists believe that the activity of the nerve signals passing through this region cause mood change by altering brain chemistry.

The nerve impulse eventually passes beyond the Limbic system to the Olfactory cortex, located towards the back of the brain. Here, the aroma will finally be recognized but by this time the brain and body will already have responded to it.

Botany of Desire by Michael Pollen


It all starts with the human bubble bee (while seeding the garden). Is it the human whois imortant or the gardener. Or…is it coevolution relationship to plant seeds. We both have our own selection (or desire). The seed catalog is an evolution tool. It’s all about the human and plant type of view. Talk about the differance between a dog and a wolf (again dogs have mastered the humans needs and desires for their own survival). This book is about human desire. We need to understand the flower (for satisdaction). Plants are not people. Plants travel in a different lane than humans. Good stuff can comes from the plant. Chemicals by plants are usedd for defense…then there is also nector! Evolution just takes place. NATURAL SELECTION.

classes of plants that will be written about:

  1. apple tree
  2. tulip
  3. marijuana
  4. the potato

Keeping Sharp by Sanjay Gupta

Facts about training the brain0

propagate brain cells

being able to toggle between short term and long term views

Can be reduced to micro chemical signals

can neurons be regenerated

increase the size of your brain

making brain cells more sharply

dementia in 1797 intelecrtual deficiet

memory losss goes with dementia

cognitive decline

brain can be fin tuned

Sanjay – Step by step process

it all begins with your brain

you need to take care of your mind for your body

don’t use fear base data

find knowledge to build a better brain

the brain is not like another organ

brain related problems are increasing

your brain can be active by some type of action, like workout or current news

socialize more

stop reading emails


person you marry plays a big role on you brains activity

You need clean life

don’t use genes as an excuse!

build a better brain…learn your brain and make it better we each have our own profile.

The brain is like a car!

have many brain disorders.

brain can get stronger as you age.


are you at risk for brain deckine?

need good

questions arer:

  1. Poor sleep sleeping well learn and remember new things
    1. Do you suffer from a brain impairment
    2. Do you avoid strenuous exercise?
    3. do you sit more than you stand?
    4. Are you obese?
    5. are you a woman?
    6. have you been diagnosed with a cardiovascular disease?
    7. do you have high blood pressure or cholesteral?
    8. diagnosed with ab=n infection
    9. do you take any medication like antidepressents?
    10. have you had a head injuy?
    11. do you smoke?
    12. have a hisory of depression>
    13. do you lack social engagement?
    14. Does formal education end a high school?
    15. is you diet full of processed food?
    16. Do you live with stress?
    17. have a history of alcohol abuse?
    18. do you suffer from sleep disorder?
    19. do you have hearing loss?
    20. does your day lack any cognative skills?
    21. does you job lack complex work?
    22. are you over 65 years old?
    23. does Alzheimer disease run in family?
    24. Do you care for someone who suffers from some sort of dementia?

Making you brain smarter and sharpness

always treat the patient not the test results

our brain creates our own experience…creates memories

brain 3.3 lbs

brain steals 20% of the blood and oxygen in the body for only being 2.5% of body weight.

Chapter 1

brain has great circuitry (better than any laptop)

about 100 neurons in your brain

brain has conection to our personal behavior

brain floats in thr “castle” in fluid (encased in solid bone)

73% water need to drink water

brain cells are the fattest

brains mature at 25 years old

every minute 1000ml of bllood flow through the brain

memory is a warehouse where we kep our knowledge (memory is always changing with new experience)

cognative correlate to decision making

memory is stored in all the brain (different links)

analzing all the inputs to our brain

memory is not like a filing cabinet!

parts of a memory comes from all areas throughout the brain

music is left side

signing is fom the right side

rhythm is from the back of the brain (page 41)

you neeed to work on ALL areas of brain

parts of memory:

  1. encoding hypocampus area to analyze short term memory

synapsis with nerotransmitters

when topractice something new, your brain rebuilds

“whats wired together fires together” all about endrites

nerons are made to help the brain forget….found in 2019 (page 46)

you need sleep to move short term to long term memory

cognative decline: starts years before dementia happens

page 51 symptoms of brain decline

Fixing issues is because DA repair slows down

Talk of CTE (with tau)

high blood pressercauses microscopic damage to the arteries leading towards the brain (page 56)

correlation between diabetis and Alzheimer disease. Type 1, type 2 high blood pressure

could be from a western diet (processed food)

look out for poor diet 🙂

watch out for unhealth weight gain. The size of your belly.

can infction lead to a nerolgical decline?

it fires up a trail for the aslzheiher webby plaque (page 62)

look out for inflammitory “issues”


Tony Dorrest football play-CTE

inflation adds to the brain decline (page 67)

need healthy neurons

hypocampus shrinks in your brain the fastest

aging is not a decline

MCI (mild cognative impairative)

vascular dementia

with Lewy Bodies

Picks disease

  1. absentmindednes need observation*
  2. blocking a distruption in yor mind
  3. scambling
  4. fadin away – use it or lose it
  5. struggling for retrival
  6. muddled multitasking

Sleep apnea is an issue




12 Distructive myths and the 5 pillars that will build you

brain can serive a trauma

  1. the brain is a complete mystery
  2. older people usually forget things…improve over time
  3. dememtia is not normal with age
  4. leaarning cn happen at all age
  5. you must master one language before another
  6. a person with memory training never forgets
  7. we use only 10% of our brain (demanding organs) brain is used all around
  8. males and female brains ae different….they are about the sam2/3 of people with Alzeheimer disease is greater
  9. crossword puzzle a day keeps the brain Dr. away
  10. you are dominated by your left or right brain (brain scanning showws both side work together)
  11. you have only 5 senses The are 6 other sensentions
  12. Brain damage is always permament

neurons are also pruned

neurons grow larger

the brain can rewire itself (you can recruit other parts of the brain for additional duties)

Page 86 talks about brain plasticity

it constantly is reshaping (brain)

brain changes itself…brain works as a whole…they

BDMF-miracle food fo the brain

don’t have bad habbits could lead to depression

page 87*****

secdiscoverrets of super ages

show no shrinkage of brain

life style changes

how to move your mind in the right direction

  1. Move break a sweat every day
  2. discover – brain training
  3. Relax
  4. Nourish protect brain against disease
  5. connect: with use, social network


prevention is the most powerful antidote

aside from age, brain decline can be changed

watch out for high cholesteral!

the miricle of movement is move more and keep an exercice routine (fitness is a key) it’ scientifically proven

exercise is a lifetime activiy

we really don’t get that much slower until we reach 70 years old

not a drug has been approved for MCI (cognative decline)

exercise is at the top of the list for advantages to the brain

needs changes to confuse your body! greatest return on investment

exercise improves:

  1. digestion
  2. metabolism
  3. body tone
  4. strength
  5. and bone density

thiis helps your brain “humming” being more desireable

exercise improves your mind, just not your body

muscle mass is important tissue that burn calories. Build and maintain muscles

Benefits of Exercise

  1. positive brain health
  2. move of sugar in your blood
  3. helps lower your inflamation
  4. increase stamina, strenght, flexability (P. 105)
  5. increase muscle tone
  6. more restful
  7. mood lifters
  8. heart health
  9. stonger immmune system
  10. decrease inflamation
  11. sleep better

Shape your brain by getting in shape

exercise helps develop neurons (p. 106)

exercise is like a first aid kit!

exercise on brain is for stresss reduction

stress hurts (lose conection possibilities) the neurons in you brain. (p. 108)

research shows that exericisee will help to increase your memory (p. 111) exercise needs to be done.

need regular exercise!

Chapter 5

The power of purpose, learning, and discovery

additional work is about a gain of 3.2% against dementia

you need to find a purpose

don’t quit of life

Exercise your brain to help rewire the brain

cognative researve is the brains ability to improvise.

The brain will choose a different path (these roads are the cognative reserve)

neuro reserve

neuro companststion

cognative stimulation help fight disease

brain can continue to grow at any age

life long education – stimulate the brain

brain games are not cognative stimulating

speed training games CAN help against dimentia

day time TV gets old! THOUGHT you need “hot sauce” for the brain.

playing video games will he you to see and move faster (move the mind)

video games could soon become medical devices

Need a strong sense of purpose

older people with a sense of purpose can make the risk of dimentia less

reason for being brings out optimizime

get yourself back in “the flow”

The need for sleep and relaxation:

higher risk of:

  1. dementia
  2. depression
  3. mood swings
  4. learning and memory problems
  5. heart disease
  6. high blood presure
  7. weight gain
  8. diabetes
  9. fall related injuries
  10. cancer

no data shows no sleep relates to success. we need 7 to 8 hours a night

sleep is a critical time where the body resets itself.

sleep is not a waste of time:

  1. it heals tissues
  2. strengthens memory
  3. even grows

Sleep medicine

highly respected field of study

  1. flies
  2. moths

sleep is ike a reset button

  1. immune system
  2. alertness
  3. insightness
  4. alertness

control of hormone system (with solar day)

circadian rhythm rise and fall of hormones

it revalve around sleep patterns

our sleep patterns should not change.

does sleep relate to memory?

sleep is good ot consolidate your memories to take in new information

look out for sleep issues

diabetesa is associated the brain health

lack of sleep can cause inflamation

sleep aids are will not let you experience the restful benefits (p. 139)

sleep takes out “sticky proteins” in the brain could lead to inflamation

Lack of sleep brings on Alzeheimers (brain decline)

  1. stick to a scheduke
  2. don;t be a night owl
  3. wake up to early morning light (to set body clock)
  4. get moving
  5. watch what you eat
  6. mind your midicine
  7. cool, quiet, and dark 60 to 67 degrees
  8. eliminate electronics (blue wave length)
  9. Establish bedtime rituals (maybe wear socks)
  10. know the warning signs

Don’t forget daytime R&R

work on meditation!

put problem in a buibble

use logic and reason (critical thinking)

analitical meditation

mindfulness (p.148)

mindfulness does reduce depression & reduce anxiety and pain

make you body relaxdeep breathing (p. 149) twice per day

walk in nature, green spaces

push ever bit of air from your lungs

can dig in y

our garden (urban deelopment)

need to “play outside”

Expess gratitude (keep journal)

practice forgiveness (p> 151)

maybe 1 day a week being screen free.

don’t multitask stuf

let your blame “roam free”

clean out all your stuff – manage your enviroment

set aside 15min. for personal stuff

knowing yourseld-self awareness

Age transitions

U shape curve of happiness (55 and older)

depression relates to dementia

Food for thought:

what is the best diet for the brain –

everything in moderation, what fuels you, worried can increase anxiety level

meditorian style diet style (better brain volumn)

green leafy vegtable

thumbs down on red meat

super food is a selling point for your brain

What’s good for the heqart is good for the brain

need cardiovascular health to fight dementia

It’s all about what you eat

western diet is not brain friendly

increasing fruit by 1 meal aday gives a 8% increase

life style changes

what do we eat?

need health foods

eat real food – supplements are not thqt beneficial

it will take time to change your diet.

aim for 7 colors of foods

the more frits = higher brain health

it’s all about contribution of foodsreduce sugar (maybe soda)

sugar intake relates to brain health cutting back on soda

avoid sugar substitutes.

food list

  1. fresh vegetables
  2. whole berries
  3. fish & seafood
  4. nuts & seeds
  5. beans
  6. whole fruit
  7. whole grains
  8. poultry

to limit

  1. fried food
  2. pasteries
  3. proceessed food
  4. red meat products

dehydraation affects cognative awareness

choose red wine becaus it has polyphenols (antioxidant that may affect blood pressure p. 175)

2 beers day, 5 oz. of wine per day

veggie oil 6 fats from processed foot

food sources NOT supplements

those who eat fish have better brain health

suppliments are not that regulated ;(

not suppliment restores brain health

portion & calorie control of food.

turn to baking and boiling when cooked

intermittent fasting could help the growth of new brain cells

P plan ahead

darker to color the higher the fiber :)!

need soluable/insoluable fiber

look at the dirty dozen list of fruit for pesticides

Gluten free diet for celiac disease

the book say you do not have to go gluten free if you don’t hve celiac

feeding you brain:

  1. choose frozen vegitables and fruits
  2. eat fish
  3. small plaate size
  4. wide variety of different colored food
  5. rainbow gives you a diverse array of nutiants
  6. use viniger
  7. use mono or polyunsaterated fats
  8. steer clear of trans fats
  9. prepare meals at home
  10. need floss is good for brain health

Need the power of connection

  • on average most people have about 19 people in their network
  • lonliness brings on cognative decline
  • larger social nretworks are the most protected
  • Moai is social support network (social exchange)
  • health is all about good relationships
  • It’s all about the qualityof your relationship
  • lean into a relationship with your family seek new relationships
  • more than 80% of people use the internet??? p. 197
  • maintain contact with people of different ages
  • put yourself in positions to interact with someone else
  • Reach out for professionals to control isolations
  • good relations helps out the brain
  • maybe use the “touch factor”
  • “never give up work” by Hawkens

The brain can be rewire it all plasticity…it;s all about change!


  1. move more throughout the day and exercise
  2. find new ways to stimulate the brain
  3. prioritize getting restful
  4. introduce a ne way to nourish your body
  5. connect authentically with others and maintain a vibrant social life.
  1. eat your last meal at least 3 hors before you go to bed
  2. stop caffine after 2:00
  3. be ritualistic about going to bed
  4. before bed…calm yourself down
  5. keep your bedroom queit, dark, and electronic free
  6. do deep breathnig, meditation,, or journal writting

Eat Sanjay Style

eat only when the sun is shinning

secrets to health (spearing fish) thes epeople in the Amazon sleep 9 hours a day and take seventrrn thousands steps per day

we drink to hydrate

call someone you haven’t talked to before

keep a gratitude journal

enviroment is very important to your normal process

be flexable and consistant

Treating an ailing brain

try something different while exercising

we are at war with dementia

Bill Gates – losing memory 😦

focus on patients first

We are just thoughts and our brain

don’t ignore systems – get checked out!

have optimisim in any diagnosis

don’t give up hope gives you better health

Preclinical time fo prevention

need stress reduction

add more berries in your diet

plant basesd diet

meditation is important

the APO gene (e3/E4) could increase risk 2X

lifestyle is more important than gene

Early Stage

could dive, experriencing some memory lapses

middle stage

forgetting events or parts of own personal life

what day is it?

sleep patterners


Late stages of Alzeheimers

lose ability to walk, swallow

not diagnosis of Alzheimers disease

Talk of NPH (normal hydrocepelus) drainage of CFS

Antcholinergic medication???

depression does not lead to alzheimers disease

don’t take brain suppliments like vitamin B12

Alcohol misuse

drinking to much

  1. could lead to ther health problems

need neuorolgist, psycologist, check out AARP, and the Clevland Clinic, maybe Mao clinic?

thriving with the disease

Memory disorder programs

dimention is not a death sentence

dimentia peopl estill have lots to give.

is dimentia like cancer?? For overall care

brain scan could be between 5,000-10,000 dollars (don’t waste your money!)

for neuro tranasmitters acetylcholine

Namenda regulatw the activity of glutamate which involves the brain function

drugs for tremors (parkensons disease could speed up alzrheimers)

treatment can be the quality of care.

each person must be cared for individually

The care giver:

from carring causes courage

Bad apples in assistant living:

IT takes a village

(by two Dutch money) A nursing home is a strange communuty (In the Nerherlands)

people feel like they are at home!

Don’t challenge a person with dimentia P.264

care givers p. 265 good referance

take care of yourself!!!! find support

p. 266 give stats 1 in 11 breast cancer to 1 in 6 for alzeheimers

keep engaged in the community

how to keep a home safe

make a legal plan…durable power of attorney (end of life requirerments)

AARP check list for family

need to build a care team

advance directives stating health care wishes can stop unwanted life care…;s all about stress

anyone who owns propety needs to have a living trust (name a trustee)

need a conservator or guardian for an estate

communicate about the distribution of goods

the invisable 2nd patient is for the care-giver

“sundowner” symptoms

dillusion is a paranoya Need to document this act

it’s crucial to be on top of your self care!

  1. emotional
  2. spiritual
  3. physical

Family care givers are qued to help (it could be a spiritiual desire). It’s normal to have the sense of denial. It’s hard!

could also have guilt! these are common feelings

build your own support network


Scientist are working with the tau protien in the brain (study with mice)

Sanjay is excited about the study of brain disease.


Downloaded book from Amazon the 26th of Jan. 2021

note: wash hands when working with plant, an watch out with the sharp instruments that this book uses.

lists “helping hands”

The author loves plants who is obsessed by seasonal changes

using propagation you can star new (more) plants

making new plants is pretty cool! it’s rewarding

know each plant as an individual. The author start in 1996 to start the propagation garden.

Propagation is different for each plant

The author likes to see the seed grow

Trial and error are great teachers

When weather warms (like 50 degree F.) tuber are brought up from dark spots from storage

for good propagation you need a good nature presentation

start different techniques for the propagation journey

The botany of propagation

you have fungi, mosses, and ferns

talk of sexual …know fern reproduction

most important food crop is rice, wheat, and corn that come from the grass family

These are the most recent flowering plant

fungi produces millions of spores set adrift from the wind

each corn silk needs to be pollenated 🙂

hummingbirds like the color red.

fruits used to help distribute the seeds.

seeds need germination

hormonal acid ABA (abscisic acid) responsible for winter dormentation

maybe conditioning with this inhibitors?

plants reproduce by seeds

plants can grow without any sex…like cuttings from a stem (location 388)

use grafting to create more plant (location 416) like wrapped twigs (with dormant bud)

Why sow?

sexual propagation comes from seeds

a seed is one of natures most ingenious gifts. The spiritual cosmos starts with the seed

seeds can be widely planted

could create a new plant

seed sowing is fun 🙂

seeds can be potted up!

use plant for foliage??

A hybrid is breeding between two different species

can have hybrid viger! for new plants F-1 first generation

Grow Your Own

maybe use day lilies (practice for about 3 years)

select particular “needed plants” (location 606)

Heirloom Purity

keep out other pollen

Hunting and Gathering

we pick seeds from all over:(

North American Rock Garden Society is a resource

The Source

original species

some hybrids are starle

some plants can be obtained thru the mail

maybe use a public garden catalog

Collecting Dry Fruit

contains seeds

harvesting dry fruits is “touchy”

might use a stick or cone to knock off the fruit

fruit must be totally dry to complete the the process of extracting

store dry seeds (need dry/clean seed)

put seed on top of the fridge, or in a closed jar

talk about ferns and spores location 823)

gathering seeds is an investment in the future 🙂

cones (pine)) have a sticky covering

to extract seed from a cone use a paper arch for support

seeds in cones can be discorded wasier with dish washing soap

cleaning seeds use a newspaper, and of course wash your hands

“faith in a seed”


a seed responds to warm weather and water

there are germination inhibitors in seeds to prevent premature sprouting

lack of oxygen could be an inhibitor

chemicals are applied to some fruits

varibility study:

put 10 seeds on a paper towel

fold towel over so they are covered

dampen with a spray bottle

slip into a plastic sandwich bag (zip loc)

place in a warm spot (75 degree F)

see if the seeds are obstructed

this is the test batch

Dry Conditioning

lightdryness is an inhibitor

Hard seed coat will prevent germination

The fire in yellowstone destroyed many seed germination inhibitors

seeds can be cleaned by using sand/or sandpaper


for conditioning

stratification is chilling and warming

so nature has the control (its forces)

for seeds soak the seeds for up to 3 days changing water twice

40-45 degree F is the best (used for stratification)

cold is a big facto in conditioning

for propagation we have to mimic

Two step germination

there is a resting time in the 1st or 2nd winter (location 1101) period of conditioning


sow seed inside with windowsill garden

create a propagation calendar

hardy seeds can be planted in a pot

some plants like a little neglect

The Great Indoors

like owning a greenhouse is a gardeners dream

use greenhouse windows

Artificial Light

need a commercially purchased “floral cart”

most seeds should be between 70 and 80 degrees

need thin cut electric heat

soil is the foundation

mixture of clay, moisture, oxygen, sand, and organic material

do we want to grow an indoor nursey?

good garden soil are in compassion

1 part drainage material to three part prepared mix (location 1257)

use a riddle to sift material (1278)

A perfect sowing medium holds both moistue and air

use a thin layer of chicken grit which prevents disease

clay pots are better for growing than plastic

need square plastic pots

seeds to be planted twice their thicknessave trunks that look like seeds

use grit


once seed draws water it cannot go dry!

when seedling have true leaves, they must be transfered

humus, grit, drainage material, peat bases mixes (location1443)


they look like trees

ferms was many spores for reproduction

Vegetable Reproduction

plants made from cutting will be larger than those prorogating from seed

for partial plant you need to help relieve stress

plants grow faster in warm climates

high humidity helps grow roots

sweat box (location 1684) propagator

Potting Up

keep young plant out of sun

depth of pot related to the length on the roots

softer material the better it will grow roots

trees don’t grow that well from cutting/ maybe seeds???? (location 1848)

herbaceous plants

most cuttiing come from sections of stems

herbaceous plants have soft stems

cutting need to be three to six nodes long (nodes where leaves appear) (location 1873)

when a cutting is right it will “snap”

most spring cutting will take between 2 – 3 weeks

judges to take cutting by it’s condition note the date or calendar

propagators usual use peat moss location 2194

Nearing Frame to propagate rhododendrons. Must be place directly north

in a water frame is bad for o2

edible figs are excellent to practice rooting

worms hate wet cutting and they will leave

avoid chemicals

Leave Cuttings (location 2378)

1 leaf can yield 100 “babies”

Simple Layering

for a shrub two years old

Simple Layering (locATION 2493)

propagating plants (location 2507)

mounting is for plants that have become to big.

Air or Chinese layering

Grafting is botanical fusion

grafting can help with disease resistance (location 2642)

grafting is great for propagation

Kinds of Cuts in grafting

v shape

witch craft

cleft graft

divide perennials after 3-4 years

plants with thick roots are easier to divide

big bluestem is easier to propagate thick stem

you need to prune the crowns and remove dead clumps in the roots

Geophytes are earth plants

can be grown from sed

Lilies can sprout in 3 weeks (some) are two step germinators

Corm appears like bulbs

tater tots are grown underground

Creeping Rhizomes can be used for propagation it stores carbohydrates


absorb moisture for the plants

always propagate with the largest roots

What’s a sweat box?

when propagating watch out for polarity of the roots!

you need patience to propagate plants

seed refers to species (no fruit)

seeds dry then die

Guide listed for propagating ornamental plants

talk of sowing of hardy seeds in winter {location 4655)

Red Pig Garden tools handcafty

check out chapter 5 (synopsis)

January 2021 Book is All the Presidents’ Gardens by Marta McDowell

All the Presidents’ Gardens: Madison’s Cabbages to Kennedy’s Roses―How the White House Grounds Have Grown with America Hardcover – Illustrated, April 27, 2016

  • Coggswell a dentist in California donated a drinking fountain to the capital
  • Lemonade Lucy Hayes
  • In Teddy Roosevelt years the vegetable garden gradually disappeared
  • Preserved 230000000 acres of land (Teddy)7
  • Gardening brings possessiveness (location 1676 38%)
  • Throughout different Presidents there is always a gardening plan
  • Harding pea blue
  • What does balled mean?
  • George Washington and Mr. Burns

From March 2017

Would like to document that this book tells the readers the history/changes of the flower (garden) as our country evolved from its foundation. A few comment was made: about the roof garden, the early conservatories, location of the White House, contributions from the Teddy Roosevelt Presidency, and the land-grant that started the Master Gardeners program. Ron brought up the name Mr. Burns, which was used by George Washington in the 1790s, Ron thought it could relate to Mr. Burns on the Simpsons .

The New Wild by Fred Pearce

Alien is a type of non native plant, invasive takes spot to grow

gave acronym guide

Introduction: natives in the land of humans. They hatch hike to cruise the planet. They also spread disease.

Humans have done bed stuff to the environment

How does nature work? We should not want to take out invasive plants. We have changed our world too much. How does nature really work? Darwin didn’t talk about ecosystems. Nature is constantly changing (by water or fire). Heal from chain saws! Don’t welcome all alien species (curb their spread). That’s for ourselves, not nature.

Is the 21s century used to revitalize nature

we need to reboot our idea of nature and conservation species

Chapter 1

on extinct volcano “green mountain”

nothing is native, all by foreign navy

island created by humans

had a cloud forest, essential island

started with sea turtles and birds

island became hub for communication needs (from Brittan) longest air strip in world

island took seeds from all over the region. Spreading of vegetation. Island ha over 350 hundred plants.

ecological fitting (could be key factor)

odd things happen on islands (sap sucking insects)

ants like to be developed in colonies

most colonies clasped in 2014

Rats not human lead to non-pollination

snakes could also cause problems (brown tree snakes) 10ft long in Guam.

Big changes to the environment around Guam.

Chapter 2

discussed Australia

talk about European sheep (also rabbits)

these rabbits couldn’t fail

transatlantic exchange (traders)

most aveerything around the world came from traders (melting pot landscape)

issues for many islands

fungus came from people moving around (like rats & people)

Colorado beetle in Soviet Union in the 1950’s

Chapter 3

jelly fish in the black sea 8000 eggs per day

clogging fishing nets

human activities pave the way for invaders. (p. 40)

talk of ballast water…it might carry 70000 species

forms Algy!!!

temperature of each port temperature

Treaty was signed, but not used in 2014 to clean off ballast water

could increase the problem (killing items that eat bacteria in the tanks).

Though, you don’t need ships for invaders

the ocean is great for aliens to travel (their life cycle) p.46

if seeds don’t float, they might migrate by flight with birds. seed, algy, micros or with the winds (dust storms)

nature is in flux and is alway rearranging itself. Is it a natural process? p.50

Chapter 4

The Kudzu vine came to the US. 1870’s [font porch vine]

for live stock

fighting drought

grows 1 foot a day

talk of Tamarisk is a nest from eeisky birds

p. 58 talk of purple loose strife (liked by native bees)

aliens like disturbed places. Like lake Erie thus the Zebra muscle

they ate most of the pollutants.

the clarity of the lake has improved

zebra spreads throughout the midwest

Pg. 69 talk about the countries biodiversity

alien species promote biodiversity

Chapter 5

Britain a nation in knotweed (can thrive almost anywhere)

they brought exotics home 2300 alien plants in Britains

knotweed is an invasive species

was it from wild gardeners

victims of cross lovers

invasive like disturbed soil

around towns and transport areas (invasive plants likes)

talk about wild animals (bore farms) talk of pesticides hurting animals

Myths and Demons

Chapter 6

Ecological cleansing

why are their so many invasive plants?

Studies show that 7% of rainfall goes to foreign trees. p. 88

South Africa is a big on invasive trees

sometimes the cure is worse than the disease

talk of rain deer and duck issues

more talk about rodents not vegetation

led to soil erosion

birds, rabbits, cats, mice, etc. plus muskrats

align species comes alone

Use bio controller-like a toad to eat beetles (king toads)

talk of invasive animals (like panthers in Florida?)

talk of bring back ducks!

Chapter 7 Myths of aliens

cold war was a fear of invasive plants

foreign species are up to no good

remember zebra muscle from Russia

invasive plants are part of Homeland Security

a dandelion grows where there is sunlight

Aligns hurt biodiversity (hurts native plants)

High percent of natives have become extinct (p. 108)

study was for only the us (personal view) bad analysis

20 to 30% of interduce species are pests and cause environmental problems (p. 111)

source is questionable????

studies in South Africa yield a rate of only 10%

stats are wrong about aliens

biodiversity with cannels! it increases

are they a distructive force

is it the bedrock of society?

more talk of alien rats

p. 118 honeybee pollination is worth 20B per year

why isn’t there a second look to invasive plants

Chapter 8

The Amazon isn’t all native

land is fertile

Eupean invaders bringing plants and diseases

it;s a living landscape becamee rain forest about 500 years ago

Amazon area is mostly man maid

deliberant planning (rain forest)

dark earth 2500 years ago used for fertilization

Rain forest could be from human disturbance

Is the planet shaped by humans?

more talk of Africa.

danger of alien disease

we want unblemished nature

Chapter 9

people a causing destruction

human being destroying the harmony of nature

goes back to the garden of Edon

no such thing as a balance in nature!

is evolution an optimizing force for rodents?

fires are a renewal

nature like humans are stuck in a rut, needs cleaning up (with fire) 1980 in yellowstone

the forest recovered the fire on the land

want to take advantage of current situations (species…in he hot spot)

is it like falling in love…interaction between species

Fire shacks and bakes

ecosystems are generally open.

there are thousands of trees in the Amazon rain forest

ecosystems can change to different situations

change in nature is common

trying for stability will bring on instability

can they co-exit? (natural selection)

birds bring in new plants

Part 3

do we want to protect species?

the invader trees are good for soil, insects, and animal life

on an island the invaders have helped the recreation of nature (or the forest) from Porto Reco

Billions of acers are coming back RECOVERY!

invasive plants seem to come back after removal

can ecosystems recover from invasive?

when plows are put away, nature will come back

Chapter 11

the bad lands

it’s crowded!

industrialization also plays a roll

critter invading cities because if food and for safety

like coyotes in Detroit or Chicago

People talk that invasive plants hurt natives, but do they? It creates biodiversity.

38 fish species live in Chernobyl nuclear pond, natives like envirroment

more opportunity for wildlife

scientist agree that the disaster has made people move out

wild creatures like abandon buildings


do all species have to be saved, or once gone will it do gone forever!

managed ecosystems don’t need to be put together like Disney World.

Chapter 12 The New World

study shown that by 2050 over thousands of species will be in jeopardy with a degree of change in temperature.

we need to help the climate “keep up

specious of migration of plants

will extinction start evolution?

will aliens speed up the extinction of native plants. It will lead to space form diversity changes (like hybrid modification).

these hybrids become new species

big push to restoration ecology in the 21st century

The new wild need to be left alone to do its thing!

nature does not move back!

The land grabbers by Fred Pearce

Nature’s Best Hope

See the source image

talking points:

Did not know that for the Presidential in 1970 that tricky Dick was a enviromentalist

talk about Leopold

Edward Wilson fishing accidemt

Little confused that we shouldn’t focus on a single item/event but at an environmental state

talk about vitamin N

goodness of planting trees and plants

We need biodivesity

Home grown natural park will teach you how to enjoy the natural enviroment instead of destroying it

turf grass has taken over meadows, forests, and prairies

Is Portland the Greenist city? all of Portland trees are imported from abroad

plant choice matters

need plants that collect insect foods

have us humans overtaken the precious resources on earth?

we looking at 52% extinction of all insects

talking of carrying capacity

number of population thaat can exist without hurting natural resources

Then importance of catapilliars

oak tees are the best for eco-system

the need for spiders (400-800 million tons of prey) WildOnes presentation

grow pocket prairie provide protection for visitors (provide pollen and nectar)

Do I need to create a bubbler?

don’t fertilizer

watch out for mosquito spray

educate uninformed people

We must act quickly to restore our nature

live with natur!

we need diverse ecosystem

Birds are like canariry in a coal find…great indicators

where is the grasshoppers? doing will in some places

  1. don’t have yard dervice
  2. mow yard
  3. plant a native plant for food for the grasshopper

To many deer are bad for our environment

landscape can decrease ticks

We all need healthy landscapes

the rate of movement of species is much to fast than normal

ecosystem[ˈēkōˌsistəm]NOUNecologya biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.”the marine ecosystem of the northern Gulf had suffered irreparable damage

The most destructive is the roadway…effects of humans

talk about natural selection…plants don’t adapt that quickly won’t adapt.

The Story of More by Hope Jahren (Climate Change)

This book was referred to me from a librarian on 23 August, it was then downloaded on kindle.

Talking Points:

  • beware of the 2 Celsius increase in temp
  • GMO talk
  • spinning wheels
  • creation of dams
  • Green energy
  • transportation needs
  • watch carbon dioxide
  • consume less & share
  • we need to get serious
  • about 3 generations until……
  • think of earthquakes & hurricanes
  • Olympics are having problems for venues  world ice is melting
  • Earth glacier’s are melting
  • Bob Dylan talks about waters
  • 1 degree increase in the temp of ocean
  • flooding of ground water
  • carbon dioxide is consumed by the ocean
  • ice un Greenland is melting
  • our earth in unhealthy
  • rapid loss in birds and butterflies
  • loss of habitat for animals plus climate change
  • by 2050 25% of species will be extinct
  • looking at the 6th extinction
  • use carbon capture
  • need to plant trees
  • reverse deforestation
  • maybe green Algy
  • talk about the happiness factor
  • seven factor for happiness p. 167
  • maybe use the carbon tax?
  • where can we consume less
  • need courage to talk about climate change
  • need to use less energy
  • step one:  examine your values
  • step 2:  gather information
  • step 3:  can you make your personable activities with your values
  • document your data
  • Question about sample size about Popeye chicken?
  • step 4:  is your personal investments aligned to your values
  • step 5:  can you move your institutions towards consistency with your values
  • do we need to find the biggest lever for climate change? (OECD)
  • need to have a kWh/annum
  • look at home energy electric use
  • the world is getting much bigger
  • consumption is doubled
  • human waste is doubled
  • lots of stats on p. 191-193
  • there is to much plastic
  • sea level up by 4 inches
  • research in many databases were used
  • look at:
    • vital signs
    • UN data (many)
  • IEA
  • fisheries
  • railways
  • losing 40% of corn from field to…?
  • EPA
  • Solid waste is increasing
  • Recycling
  • easy food on demand
  • yeah for Norway
  • Read Four degrees and beyond, A review of climate geoengineering proposals
  • the author did a fast food study
  • on page 201 gives web site for economic activities
  • Was the author a Lutheran?

Paradise Lot by Eric Toenemeier (Zoom Discussion)

downloaded 7.21.2020

we need to listen to the land

150-200 food and nitrogen producing plants, thus your eatable landsape (a small city block).

This is gardening for everybody else

published in 2013

Germination is the beginning of the garden

  • permaculture  permanent agriculture  (need low maintenance)  help out the environment
  • talk about heat BTUs of chicken by a greenhouse
  • these chickens made less work for the gardener
  • Gave lists of reference’s about permaculture
  • Author had a head injury

Chapter 2 – starting a seed company

  • look for insect and pest-control strategy
  • goumi bush that fixes nitrogen
  • use polyculture can yield more than monoculture
  • can limit weeds and control pests
  • made room for frogs and toads
  • nitrogen fixing plants make their own fertilizer!
  • “The Tofu line” North & South of western Mass.
  • use of infrastructure of Holyoke
  • parents bought their first house for an investment
  • permaculture experts say you should spend at least a full year observing your site before deciding what to do with it.

Sun, Shade, Soil, Slope

  • with a goal for a specific site
  • use series of graphs for analysis and assessment
  • can determine the sun and what provides protection from the wind and provide shade
  • talk abouecosystemt different type of soil on the property (did a soil test)
  • talk about water needs!
  • this leads to an overarching vision to tie your land into a garden. p. 37
  • after testing soil & sun was most important

A Model  Ecosystem chapter 6

  • behind K-Mart
  • they used wild urban plants
  • p. 38 Goldenrod heals cities from the damage we have done to them  (good for ecosystems)
  • the k-mart field was from a construction fill -was used to mimic the process
  • the whole idea was for regenerative design to bring back a site of life


  • make a list of what you want to grow
  • The thought was a make edible plants
  • use nitrogen-fixers and nectar plants
  • talk about Ecological footprint (buying food from overseas)
  • no native nitrogen-fixing shrub
  • use goumi as a nitrogen-fixer
  • could they bring back birds
  • a salamander was caught showing improving ecosystem health
  • many pictures were shown on construction/use of the garden

Part 2 It takes a Village to Plant a Food Forest

  • organized a “permabliz” to rapidly transform a landscape
  • use sheet mulching
    • lime/mineraal fertilizer
    • add organic material
    • add a weed barrier (3 to 6 months)
      • used cardboard
    • add carbon rich material p. 65
  • need to shred leaves to speed up the decomposition
  • built spoil also buillt community

Tacky Tropicalesque Takes Off chapter 9

  • author was inspired by tropical plants
  • figs grow to 8 ft.  P.68
  • start of a productive paradise with the front yard tropical garden

The Edible Water Garden

  • mosquito eating fish?
  • used a lotus as a centerpiece
  • lotus roots are killed by freezing  (have deep roots)
  • native water lillies help shadde garden
  • talk about a good relationship with neighbors is a key part of permaculture
  • goldfish eat mosquito larva
  • used rugs to shield rubber linear from stones


  • worked on all organic


  • growing mushrooms
  • on page 78 the top 5 are listed
  • author liked to hunt for mushrooms
  • without mushrooms, compost wouldn’t


  • growing fruits


  • perennials produces better than annuals
  • Sorrel plant/ water celery (greens for salad)
  • sunchokes????
  • scallions (perennial)
  • maybe fuki???  Japanese’s
  • asparagus
  • sweet cicely
  • garlic chives
  • red Russian kale
  • yellow pair tomato’s
  • black nightshade fruit


  • can be mixed into salad  (sea kale or turkish rocket)


  • weeds were coming into the garden
  • a parakeet came to the garden to “check it out”


  • getting a larger farm
  • wanted wells, barn, and fencing
  • Non profits wanted free work
  • they got free goats (they liked eating poising ivy)
  • working with spanish farmers
  • big  on social  justice!


  • can  the author build a shed?
  • thus, a skunk problem arose
  • wanted ecological integrity
  • married Meg


  • Steps to fence out animals
  • have water needs irrigation system
  • green house gives you a 2-3 week difference
  • use cow parsnips to attack beneficial insects





  • the chicken started eating the leaves from the weeds
  • The Weeds were chicken feed
  • the chicken manure was good for compost
  • garden fertility’s cycle
  • silk worms eat nothing but mulberry leaves
  • chicken like to eat bugs
  • silk worms growing to about 2 inches (harvest the silk)
  • life from insects were happening in their garden


  • JUNEBERRIEW have knock out flowers
  • red, white, and black currants….and gooseberries
  • “mango berries”
  • ground cherries
  • lingonberry’s?


  • point roof water to the street
  • need to redirect water into the garden
  • use rain barrows
  • water has been moving through our lives for years
  • build soil
  • important for growing things
  • aeration of the soil
  • good compost
    • purchased compost
    • organic vegetables
  • gardens need minerals (like rocks)…invite diversity with insects


  • uses trellised to support grapes
  • beach plums
  • hazel nuts dwarf???
  • Korean Giant
  • pawpaw flowers
  • hand pollinating could lead to more fruit
  • pawpaw’s are native
  • Talk of growing kiwi’s
    • great flavor
    • looks over ripe
  • vitamin C comes from Brazil
  • Chesnutt grafting


  • lack of toxic sprays
  • flowers that provide nectar
  • the author think its a sign of success for not using spray


  • talk of good livelihoods
    • selling extra plants
  • “Tilling the Soil of Opportunity” program
  • plants to customer was the best way.


  • nitrogen fixing trees and shrubs are a must
  • bush-clover (you need between 25 to 40 percent of plants in full sun to be nitrogen-fixers
  • Hog peanut and licoricw milk vetch
  • look at ground nuts
  • use white clover for nitrogen-fixer (like ground cover)
  • nitrogen-fixers grow excessively


  • serves as a living mulch
  • water celery grows in summer
  • gooseberry is a native??
  • strawberries are also groundcovers
    • Kelly’s blanket
    • Alpine strawberries
    • use baron strawberry
  • talk of horsetail!!!


  • Web site was launched to help other gardeners
  • talk about happy geese
  • permaculture king
  • taught a class in Mexico on food forests
  • perennial farming to fight climate change



  • ecosystem was at a “life of its own”
  • a salamander BLUE was taken from the garden
  • this show the garden is now attaching different organism
  •  CHAPTER 27the garden started to take steps on their own
  • there was a spider mite attack
  • letting nature do all the work!   One straw Revolution


  • Creating a holistic plan for their own life
  • is the life like our garden
  • forest garden is established
  • eating is now free
  • 1/10th of a acre=400lbs.


  • maybe create a design disturbance


  • fire kills some insects and pests
  • sun flower is an oil seed plant (most important)
  • permaculture is to imitate nature
  • human impact could be positive
  • practice of squirrel gather nuts and paying them with corn


  • maybe use hog peanuts and paw paw plants
  • use unchokes  they fix nitrogen?
  • growing something while waiting for a tree tto develop
  • talking about bush clover as a cover


  • both of the authors achieved all their goals
  • these two left their day jobs…cold climate forest gardens is a plus
  • need to hav  open water, nectary plants, bird food for insects


  • intensity and frequency of extreme weather


  • talk of grafting species of plants
  • adding rabbits with the chicks, plus native bees
  • would like more people to work on the garden
  • author talking about progessive policies
  • Yield for permaculture all goes back to the designer
  • most produced is for carbohydrates
  • it won’t feed a city
  • talk of planting Chesnutt (78% carbs)




Nitrogen fixers are an important part of natural ecosystems, and an integral component of my recommend best practices for sustainable landscaping. Nitrogen fixers are plants that have the ability to take atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into forms usable by plants and animals.


The Importance of Nitrogen in Fertilization

Landscapers, gardeners, and farmers value nitrogen-fixing plants for their ability to contribute an essential plant nutrient (namely, nitrogen) to the soil. Nitrogen is one of “the big three,” being the “N” in NPK, the three letters that form a virtual stamp of approval for a complete fertilizer.

What Are Nitrogen-Fixing Plants?

Nitrogen-fixing plants release nitrogen back into the air after they die, making it available to other live plants. Plants in the legume family are known to be nitrogen-fixing.


From Gardening knowhow:

How Do Plants Fix Nitrogen? Nitrogen fixing plants don’t pull nitrogen from the air on their own. They actually need help from a common bacteria called Rhizobium. The bacteria infects legume plants such as peas and beans and uses the plant to help it draw nitrogen from the air. The bacteria converts this nitrogen gas and then stores it in the roots of the plant. When the plant stores the nitrogen in the roots, it produces a lump on the root called a nitrogen nodule. This is harmless to the plant but very beneficial to your garden. How Nitrogen Nodules Raise Nitrogen in Soil When legumes and other nitrogen fixing plants and the bacteria work together to store the nitrogen, they are creating a green warehouse in your garden. While they are growing, they release very little nitrogen into the soil, but when they are done growing and they die, their decomposition releases the stored nitrogen and increases the total nitrogen in soil. Their death makes nitrogen available for plants later on.

Read more at Gardening Know How: Nitrogen Nodules And Nitrogen Fixing Plants