the reason for flowers
going to attempt reading/listening/taking nots for 30 min per day
(6/18) Praise notification. For the science, history, and culture
it was well researched.
It’s more than beauty and fragrance. Flowers rule the world.
Flower enrich our lives, interplay with insects.
looking forward to read appendix 1: flower stats
beauty of their shapes. Flowers feed and clothe us. OIts fruit and sees keep the worlds 7.2 billion people from starvation. We give flowers as tributes. It goes with us our whole life (cradle to grave). Hope for bright future.. Used for flavors. We might not be here without flowers. Flowers make us happy and lift our spirits. It also helps heal our bodies and mind
Flowers like to attract attention. It’s a living organism. Free to live outdoors. Bees help flowers reproduce. Flowers need sexual favors to spread their sperm to have their egg fertilized. They use their petals for attraction along with texture
(6/19) Flower show sexual organs of the plant….attack tiny insects. Flower go back about 400 million years. Flowers look out for themselves. Flower pollination started over 100 million years ago.
Lilly Flower: starting from the top of the flower, you will see the tumescent rod, or the female sex organ (of the pistil)
the stigma at the tip is moist and gooey to catch and hold the pollen that comes its way.
Pistil: Stigma, style, & Ovary
ovary at the bottom of the pistil
there is double fertilization (2 sperm cell) 2% complete 2 sperm cells
What’s in it for the birds and bees
could be for warmth
next building stuff
most important is to feed (nectar, pollen) high energy 3 types of sugar in the nectar
it has 5 to 60 % protein
also floral oil in tropical families
nest building could be from flowers
fragrance: Perfuming the out of door
flowers are chemists
as the flower ages, the perfume loses its power
flower can come up with the sense of death
Are flowers losing their fragrance from global warming?
Bees can discriminate on the basis of touch (texture)
Plants send electrical charges (friction for air)
A bee land on a negative part of the flower, this will lead them to pollination, so this is to label this plant (signal left by bees themselves
Flower change color after pollination, or changes with age
could be to register if it has nectar or pollen
the red has the longer-wavelength side of the color spectrum
Bees don’t see UV colors (infrared)
Bumble-bees can easily see 5 times faster as ourselves
talk about seeing “flicker fusion while a bee is watching a movie
with bee site, this is why flowers look like they do
fossilized flowers are not on display…they don’t rate
they are locked up and stored away
The first flower appeared perhaps between 130-160 million years ago
alge started growing
6 % complete
earlier years a lot of pollen eating insects
“naked seeds” they are not embedded in fruits
conifer sex could take years to occur
ginkgoes go back millions of years
the females produce “stinky nuts”
EAARTHS FIRST POLLUNATORS
could be from the ginkgo plant (study 2012)
butterfly’s are preserved in 165-million-year-old fossils
Darwin’s Abominable Mystery
wrote letter in 1879 highly acceleration the evolution of first flowering plants. It was a rapid change.
Fossil flowers are wrapped/trapped in clay, but they are jmade up of all carbon, and preservation is astonishingly good
The flowers might have fallen and preserved by a fire (history)
There is many amber (good for fossils)
amber mine founded in 2007 (orchid and a bee in amber)
fossil evidence shows the flowers were “tiny”
over time the flowers got bigger to attract insects
fly’s and small beetles were the pollinators
Does the creator like fly’ and small beetles
bees have been on planet for a long time 100mya. Pollen is food for the bees.
stingless bees arrived adapting chemical warefare
bats have huge about of pollen in their guts
flowers evolutionary strategies were highly adaptive.
go from flowers will block other plants
some plant also use wind or water
Chapter 3: The Pollinators
Orchid flowers come in a wide arrange of shape, would the bees follow them
bees followed the bucket orchids from Panama, the bee=s ended up following.
Orchids and their bees
don’t waste pollen on a unwanted oeichads
male bees ha have no stings
the bees spread fragrance LIKE the orchid-perfumed BRR KNIGHT.
female bees look for nesting material
Beetles as Pollinators
for beetles, they are redundant
Most poppies are beetle-pollinated
beetles like orange-crimson petals with black centers
beetles don’t seem to be pollinators, all beetles are not scandal’s
THOSE FLITATIOUS FLIES
flies get bad press (far worse than beetles)
most flies are benign, even helpful.
estimated 160000 species
many flies visit flowers
fly’s are after bees for pollination
drone flies search for nectar, or yellow color
The worlds largest flower Rafflesia arnoldil is a stupendous flower. The main body of the plant is hidden, its a parasitic plant and grows internally. It grows three feet in diameter and weigh a hefty 24 ponds each.
Each flower had five broad, flattened arms like a fat starfish,stench was like road kill.
wasps/flower have a a comparison due to the color and odors that appeal to them
wasps like brown or green flowers.
Australia orchids depend on wasps for pollination
#1024 or 13%
speaking about butterflies. Show inspiration from caterpillar to butterfly
large butterflies are not good pollinators
butterflies live for 2 weeks??
In the U.S. there is about 700 kinds of butterflies compared to ten thousand moths
moths are very interesting:
In 1862 Darwin predicted (on orchards) he thought that there is long tongue insect in Madagascar to feeds of this orchard. A large hawk moth was discovered 20 years later.
Moths with Tentacles?
A yucca moth (trading sex for food)
It still is a bee pollinated planet
bees have been doing this for 60-100 prior years
there is only 11 species of Winnie to poo honey bees
the tropics have over five hundred stingless bees
about 47 species of bumble bees live in the U.S.
there re more than 350000 flowering plants
bees buzz to extract the pollen (sonic buzzes)
Every third mouthful is do to wild pollinators
#1190 or 15%
about $billion agriculture is brought up by wild bees
bees produce fruits and seeds for our diet
bees are added to tomatoed gardens, they are exchange after months
***pollination are signed a year early
honey bees don’t buzz pollinate
honeybees need to drink constantly
long becks also pollinate (like hummingbirds)
Have nectar bats (have long tongues)
Reptiles (lizards) also pollinate
the gecko is also listed they are great climbers for nectar)
Us people like to collect, multiply and hoard these flowers.
Part II Chapter 4
#1400 or 18%
(6/26) Pleasure Gardening:
when daytime is at 60 degrees, it time to plant bulbs
do soil need to be able to grow something to eat
Digging sticks were talked about
women were the “gatherers”
soil is a precious resource not the be wasted
scent and flavor chemistry links flowers to fruits
Are plants seducing us to do their bidding?
The World Oldest Gardens
Like in Babylon or Samaria along fertile presence
Shaduf: used for watering for the Egyptian people a ceramic pot
The ancient Egyptians were Master Gardeners
#1541 or 20%
in china flowers are for pleasure, happiness, and friendship plus symbolic meaning
God and Goddesses in Garden
deep purple flowers
Hades; s tried to make a garden in the underworld
The Roman elite imported many types of plants
Were flower just for church alters, banquets, or weddings.
Could also be used as medicine.
Aztec Marigolds in Mexico in Mexico city. The Aztecs were gardeners
Aztec garden was like a paradise. (lots a water)
Aztecs had a floating garden in Mexico City
the most important flower in the Persian garden is the rose (or gul)
it has a party atmosphere
the garden of Paradise
#1684 or 22%
Persian people thrived on tulips
Pleasure gardens started about the 6th centaury
water items, stepping stones were added to these gardens
some gardens showed of no flower, plants were well “clipped”
John the elder of London (1570-1638) started moving plants around the globe
Patriotic Gardens of America
all founders were gardeners, and amateur botanists
start of the liberty tree
Washington had 500 acre garden and it was a model for others to follow
Plants came from US to London, and the Atlantic exchange developed with plants from Africa (William Bartram) and Australia.
Mowed yards came from Italy.
thousands for plants are now in gardening books
18-19 century gardeners were more robust in what to grow
Americans have innovated gardens all types of different gardens
some people are tearing up lawn for a “meadow” look
Flower for Eternity (Chapter 5)
“Loves last gift”
1824 23% done#
Rose Hill Memorial Park in Whittier California is the largest cemetary in the U.S. (Orange County)
bouquets of flowers were at grave site.
ephedra is a stem that makes to flowers
eases our grief
flowers comfort us
goes back to in King Tut.
for graves it could have been used to hide the odor
flowers are both in rainy and dry cycles
King tut was buried in 1323 BC (19 year old)
Virgins wore white for her wedding. It also steers away evil spirits
The soul leaves the body as a butterfly
planted also cleans the earth
The Lotus was discussed (several Hindu deities)
represent beauty, without attachment
Flowers are on display for many festivals
Lotus symbolizes softness and beauty (Buddha)
flowers of Bali (floral offering (acts of faith
#1976 25% complete.
(7/1) It’s a spiritual actions or way of life. the lotus plant
flowers are hanging around temples as a matter of faith
favorite flower finds new religions
Roses red were linked to Jesuses blood and virgin mary
all took place because of trade
Mary had her Madonna Lilly
Violets given on Valentines day
Mexico thinks of a spirit filled flower, paradise flowers
sometimes it’s paper (flowers)
butterflies are like flying flowers
November 1 and 2 is the day of the dead living and paper flowers
mixing of color of flower mixing.
flowers and dying
floral have better dying through the chemistry of fragrances
flowers used at funeral have less fragrance now
Average funeral is about $8,0000
Now there is a move to colors, surprise bloom. Flower breeding, may reduce pollen attacking sense. These could make an unrewarding nutritional desert
#2140 or 28% complete
(7/1) Best of Show
all orchids in many types of color/visits to green houses
talk about plant breeders
these flowers are bi-sexual (shuffle genes)
plants are sexual organism
hybrid plants were not as fertile as their parents
hybrid plants were ungodly (natures bastards)
rose bushes are the most popular
Flowers are great gifts
talk about flowers coming from bulbs
orchid are the most expensive flower
can get an award of merit (increases the value)
#2338 or 30% complete
(7/2) Live long and prosper
vase life is for selling cut flowers
commercial cut flower must be prime before shipment. It’s possible that cut flower could be 2-3 months old.
ethylene is used to change its color
use ethylene resistant spray
Look at appendix 3 for cut flowers
Long roses come from Ecuador
for trailing a plant it takes about 3 year to collect the seeds.
“trialing” for a new plant could cost up to $100,000
Takes 10 years for a shrub to enter the market
For new plants – gene blasting is used
The little black flower
it’s a romantic question
comes from hybrid flowers, black velvet petunia
all flowers are not black it has a double layer of purple pigments
The true blue rose (of love)
its not a wildrose…no blue pigmomnt
a blue die was used
blue rose of love
#2511 or 32% complete
genetically handy capped
easy to dye (with food coloring)
some florist spray paint flowers
They used a RNA process to get blue rose
Florists have been m changing the appearance of flowers for years
bees stay away from flower that make no nectar
Pollination is rewarding!!
flowers you can get next ay
from country to country
local florist is questionable
Flowers are growing towards the Equator – green house production.
Today you can get cut flowers in California
now it’s flowers from Columbia over $1 billion markets,
issue with cut flowers vs. cocaine
talked about packing flowers to ship
dunking in chemicals
wages are vey low 😦
the port of call from Ecuador is Miami
sometimes it’s 50 planes per day
Rose stems were used to smuggled cocaine
about 4 billion cut stems per year.
that’s about 10 million flowers every day
#2691 or 35% complete
(7/3) difference in cut-bloom industry (largely roses)
we need to wait for mother nature [we buy what is blooming
Dutch action only allows 200 million
can be in transit over a week from when it was cut
flower get re-routed by air frequently
5 billion fresh-cut flower from Dutch action in Amsterdam. 200 million red roses
224 million roses were grown for valentines day.
most roses come from central and south America
Organic gown flowers is very important
does it have mixed blooms
was it chemically sprayed
Certification (SCS scientific certification system) was introduced in 2001 Friendly flower “Veriflora”
organic is now an option
was a little off about Amazon prime (2018)
Dubai is now a hub for the flower market
hubs are Dubai, Holland, Miami, or other destination
eating flowers; eating from petals are garnishes
what is edible and what isn’t
don’t eat out of a vase at a resterant
most flower you can eat raw, it’s for appearance factor
Edible blooms have sugars, proteins, amino acids, lipids, antioxidents, and various pigments
Most is for visual delight
can eat flower buds and their budding stems.
#2854 or 37% complete
text on edible flowers (need)
also flower pats like a artichoke
flavored water and deserts
like having rose water
talk abbot cooks in Vietnamese and Mexican cooks use only the male flower when cooking. Females are left to fruit
flower find their way into drinks.
lidt of best
9. Signet marigold
10. squash blossoms
flower to avoid
if you can’t ID it, don’t eat it!
soak flower for 5 to 10 min.
for eating flowers
2. not from florist
3. nothing along road sides
4. Ask waitress about flowers on your plate
#3039 or 39% complete
(7/5) saffron flower is the most expensive flower (in history)
Mid-east produces most saffron
flowerily nectar attacks bees to the flower
nectar translates to honey 80% sugar and 20% water
nectar is also flight food
bumble bees also store honey in nests buried in ground
honey heated to 161 degrees F.
flower pollen is perfect for bees
from protein, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, and sugars
energy rich flowers (pollen)
eating pollen can be rough
35 % of our global agricultural diet comes from animal-pollinated fruits ans veggies
Chapter 9 A little Dab behind the Ear
almost everything has a scent
private communication to attack for pollination
perfume in 10th century came from rose flowers
was in incense?
use floral sense to hide body order
most flower send out scent molecules
Biochemists have cataloged more than 1,700 volatile compounds in common plants
#3170 or 41%
(7/6) few flowers are scentless
flower has fragrance molecules that are released
bees use this smell to attack them to the flower
emits no less than 52 different molecules
by crushing a leaf you might get the “smell” of these flowers
some of the flowers odor JUST STINKS!
flower pollinated by bats also stink
nature is a copy cat on scenes (fragrant molecules)
try only 3 or for fragrant on a perfume visits
Egypt was the perfumer, with make up, scented perfumer was stored in designed boxes/jars
Egyptian people could trap scents
Cleopatra seduced Julius Caesar and Marc Antony with her scented urgents each day.
flowers in different countries smell different
this is because of cheap labor.
#3321 or 43% complete
some roses are grown for their fragrant petals
solvent distraction to make steam/water
some perfume contains between 60 to 80 chemical ingredients (molecules). Bring in other molecules!
about100 new perfumes sell on the marked annually
90% synthetic material is what’s in perfumes
Chapter 19 The Secret Language of Flowers
what is the meaning of a bouquet?
addresses a beauty to our lives
#3488 or 45% complete
(7/8) earlier painting flower scenes
flowers were used for woman to communicate
roses with no thorns signified love at first sight
orange is virginity
different cultures have different meanings
aster-daintiness and love
Red for passion
white for purity
pink for happiness
yellow for infidelity and unconscious beauty
thought of absent friends
long lasting affection
Flower of living tributes
wreaths given to champion athletes including gladiators
champions in Olympic gets roses or olive branches
given as tributes
Wearing your flowers
corsage is a group of flower worn on a breast (left style of dress)
speaker are set aside for wearing a flower
it’s the safelist gift to give
given odd number of flower is a niche, but not 13.
Flowers as National or State Emblems
German speaking people adapted the bachelor’s button
in 1986 the Rose was the emblem of the US. It was the Peace Rose by President Reagan
#3651 or 47% complete
(7/8) conservation flower to prevent erosion
Ladybird promoted bluebonnet flowers in the 60’s
Chapter 11 Flowers on the page
used as a metaphor in writing’s
lilies in the bible
biblical verses of the bible is rare
-Song of Solomon 2:1-2
-Song of Solomon 6:2-3
Note: the genus Rosa is not native to the part of the world as listed in Bible
in Luke 12:27-28 it wasn’t really a Lillie.
Flowers of Purgatory
Dante call for a terrestrial paradise leading to purgatory
Rose is in almost all types of writings
Hamlet had violets growing on a grave (Shakespeare)
Gardens were also discussed in Poems
33828 or 49%
Poems with Alfred Tennyson
poem for Abe Lincoln and even China with political interests
flower pedals (symbol)
poetry for special occasions
talk of “my wild Irish rose”
many musicians talk about flowers from Beetles, Mick Jagger, Jon Bon Jovi, and Sting to name a few.
Plus the Grateful Dead
chapter 12 Flowers in Art
flowers are also used in medicine (known as herbals).
Christ wounds on the cross were symbolized by five petals of a wild rose, and passion flowers.
#4005 or 52%
da Vinci painted many wild flowers (1452-1519)
some pictures are drawn with flower that bloom in spring wuth blossoms that bloom in summer.
Pre-Raphaelite pictures (paintings) of young woman
The rise of Modernism, using simple pastel flowers
using color with short brush strokes
Monet had cataracts
“If you don’t understand it…TO BAD”
make love, not war, the hippie thing
lots of information about photos of flowers (techniques used) flat bed scanners
flower on paper currency and coins and postal stamps
Art of arranging flowers
flowers scenes cleanses the air
black spots in pansies
flower were also elements of tapestries and rugs (carpet weavers)
also with ceramics and porcelain (like bowls – 14 century)
Now…scanned and printed in 3-D
Art in glass of artificial flowers from Harvard
Chapter 13 Flowers and science
how many organs are in the plant for ID purposes
#4406 or 57% complete
do plants have inheritance (physical trends) in next generation
Notes from Darwin:
seven of Darwin’s books were from plants ONLY (Walk in the Woods)
evolution in orchid plants
also self and cross pollination
Flower in a wind tunnel – pollination by flowers
pollen grains with the leaves as a variable
(7/11) moths are checking out the nectar of the cactus plant
How do bees see flowers:
have special “secret” communication communications. Hyman eyes are much better than bees.
floral manipulation tricks bees:
could we trick the bees by messing up the little yellow flowers (like paper yellow)
For about $80 you can get a kit of a small starter colony of bumble bees
pollen and crime-scene forensics
good because it remains unnoticed
pollen from worm wood was evidence of rape. He was convicted!
These chemicals (like 30 send scent to the brain
talk about vibration techniques of the scent fragrance
Chapter 14: Good for what Ails Us: Healing our bodies and minds
we enjoy (US) open spaces
book titled Biophilia – universe desire to be in a natural area
Flower improve a smile
improves are mood
raises our spirits
saffron was used to reduce fever and love
china tea- type 2 diacetates
Some flowers have changed their properties, so watch out
flowers have healing properties
#4786 or 62% complete
honey is nectar and it will heal wounds
like burns & circumcise.
80% sugar 20% water
2nd and 3rd degree burns
sterol bandages with honey additives
anti bacterial factor is high
healing power of flowers and pure sugar
Have cut flowers in room brings good feelings to people who are in the hospital
with flowers it easy to find comfort and will decrease blood pressure
human apparently secrete chemicals in the air when they are happy, anger, anxiety (just like seeing a dog)
flower oil used in massage
flowers to cure cancer….NO!
flowers make us smile.
Who is in control?
Flowering plants have more control than we think
Thought we all need each other (animals and plants)
talk about bat sex
have flowers changed the way of human life?
The sick Rose:
425,000 species have been Id’d
have lost about 500000 plants per year
some are now extinct
what will plant species extinction will take place in the next 50 years
little plug for the Monarch butterfly
no flowers can be made without seeds (so which came first – chicken or egg?
flowering plants need to be protected for their own sake!
so, buy organic soil
gives environmental and social justice
flowers and humans need each other for survival.
(7/12) Great appendix for statistics
Do’s and don’ts for fresh flower was good
it was a well documented book