Northern Gardener (Nov. book)

10/20/2021-Introduction

the grandma didn’t like germs…fried the pork chops to smithereens

alot of spraying and digging to keep the garden up to snuff

planting a fish head in a tomato planting hole does work well p.5

It’s all about the soil.

26 Chapter of gardening from A to Z.

I. Apples:

represent dream and desires

was it the king of fruit?

the fruit stored well

most apples grown in Minnesota died because of the cold P. 8

the apple gardener was growing for the great state of Minnesota

for growing apples: choose hardy varieties , plant apples in right soil and sun conditions.

be vigilant about diseases.

in the 1950’s dwarf trees arrived

once planted water everyday (first 4-6 weeks), then water 3-7 times a week for 12 weeks

most apple trees will bear fruit between 2-5 years

bees are needed for pollination

look out for rodent nibbling on tree

prune well and watch out for pests P. 12

spraying an apple tree once per year can lead to “good, smoothfruit”. P. 13.

most orchards will spray six or more times per year.

maybe use traps for pests.

II: basics (soil, sun, water, time)

Sun: plants need sun to grow

some vegetable gardens will produce good veggies with 5 hours of sun

soil:

best soil is fluffy (organic matter to suck up water) and allow roots to grow/move

do a pH test

if the soil sticks together it’s clay

soil should smell like it has life in it p. 19

start a compost pile P. 19

when in doubt add compost

water:

Sprinkling has cause more roots to dry up, more mildew

watering lightly weakens most garden plants P. 19

the humidity it creates is good for the fungi

use rainwater P. 20

veggies need about 1 inch per week

keep water close to the soil, not on the leaves. P. 20

drill a hole in a five gallon bucket and place bucket in garden P. 20

III. Climate

coldest winter in 1874-75 avg. temp 4F

three important numbers:

cold hardness zone

frost free date

first frost date

refer to chart P.24

these dates will give the gardener a good feel on how climate works or the garden.

cold winter can suck the moisture out of shrubs and trees P. 25

use leaves or hay as mulch to insulate plants

snow insulates plants

states are about 2 degrees warmer now. P. 27

warm weather means higher dew points

plus higher humidity and precipitation

phenology you look at natural phenomenon (like salmon in lake Michigan)

list of natural causes P. 28

IV: Design

a planted house becomes a home P.29

Break yard into three areas

1. public

2. service

3. private

you house architecture influence landscape style

10 landscaping tips:

  1. plant your yard on paper first
  2. think about mowing your yard
  3. think masses and odd numbers
  4. think about views from the inside
  5. think foliage
  6. plan bloom
  7. think color
  8. eyesores
  9. plant for your reach
  10. start with the big stuff

Walkways 3-4 feet wide

need a focal point for the garden. I place where your eyes travel to.

V. Elms (and other trees for shade)

start of Dutch Elm disease? 1961

best trees to plant P. 40-41

Trees engage the public P. 42

a 1/3rd of an acre yard should have between 10-15 trees

  1. should be evergreen
  2. fruit
  3. shade trees

have a purpose for the tree you plant

An oak tree is good for pollinators P. 43

for a tree think about:

  1. it’s height
  2. growth speed
  3. its environment like soil

best time to plant a tree is in the fall P.44

water the tree reguularly

do a good job pruning. A poorly pruned tree has the tendency to die.

VI. Fruit

Growing fruit is one of the most rewarding process.

fruits grow best in the sun

likes rich organic matter

for cleaner strawberry’s spread mulch between plants

blueberries can be picked on the edges of pined forest or clearings

when growing remove the blossoms for the first two years for encouraging the plant to grow

have a net ready to protect them from birds. Also remove dead and disease branches

birds also like cherry trees

Plums become ripe in mid July-mid august

Growing Raspberries’ require sun and well drained soil

need to prune them

need a support structure to deter flopping of canes

Prune your gooseberry plant…any canes over 3 years old should be cut to the ground

Should only have 4 canes per plant

VII Gladiolus (and other bulbs)

corm is a type of bulb

corms extend the gardening season

spring bulbs are planted in the fall

rules:

  1. plant as many as you can
  2. plant spring bulbs in drifts or masses
  3. limit yourself to two colors P. 58

plant bulbs 6 inchesgrow basil apart

after cutting the blossom you should wait a couple hoursa for th flower to “harden uo” before using in a bouquete. P. 58

bulbs cure in about 3 weeks P.59. Shake off all the fungi powder

Dahlias should be planted in warm soil P. 59

when growing remove the first flowering bud

plant Dahlias in mid April

Hardy bulbs do not have to be removed from ground in winter P.60

Daylilies are not lillies P. 60

Martagons thrive in the North

look for a Claude Shride

VIII Herbs

herbs attract butterflies P. 62

easy to grow in containers

herbs need to be watered

grow basil and dill (which bees and catapillars enjoy)

maybe a dream herbs lavender

IX Invaders

P.70-1 have pest listed for garden

garden crritter chart is on P.73

decoy plant are those pest like but you don’t care about

the stickier the plant, the better

X Juniper and other conifers

Juniper are among the most adaptable evergreen

Very easy to grow

know your conifers: P. 76-8

  1. creeping
  2. low
  3. rounded
  4. columnar
  5. wide pyramid
  6. weeping
  7. Topiary

evergreens are slow growing plants

before buying make sure you have the space for it

you will have to baby the evergreen for the first couple of years

If your soil is not poor you probably do not have to fertilize

Pruning is the biggest care activity

P.80 gives chart of Minnesota native evergreens

XI Kraut

Bread and butter pickle recipes on P. 82-83

preserve vegetables

fermenting with salt at veggies

fermenting food promotes good gut health P. 84

once fermentation i complete to food should be put in refridge

otherwise can your veggies, use a pressure cooker, or freeze foods

3 rules for preservation

  1. use your best harvest
  2. used approved recipes for direction’
  3. label your work

XII: Lawns

lawns are important to the home landscape

mow about 1 every 10 days in the heart of summer P. 88

longer grass shades the roots P. 89

10 tips for a better looking yard P.89

grass grows from a crown (like a stem)

spraying the weeds is good for creeping charlie

need broad leaf herbicide (post emergent)

XIII Minnesota Tip

Tipping is the best way to get hybrid tea roses through the winter

rose picture of being prepared for winter P. 94

home roses put out their best bloom in June

A rose should be planted 18 inches deep and spread by 24 inchws

fill in the hole 1/2 way, abd then water, then fil in the rest

keep the rose fully watered for 10 days

for blloms:

  1. try some fertilizer
  2. use fish emulsion
  3. well rotted manure or nitrogen elements

Roses need about a inch of waters per week to survive

plant disease resistant roses

Say no to rose cone! P. 97

Don’t crush Japanese Beetles. The scent will attract more beetles

their like cycle is 6 weeks p. 97

maybe plant dill, yarrow? cosmos to influence insects to feed on these plants

XIV: Native Plants

they are easy to grow

they look “wild”

need to understand the condition of each native plant you grow

need limited care

normally have less diseases

natives attracts birds, butterflies, and insects

worried about pollinators

hybridizers are responding to native varieties

when shopping for plants pick out he “straight species”

synopsis of ten native plants P. 103-5 (prairie smoke)

XV: organic

in the 50s the answer to gardening questions always had to do with chemicals

being organic do we think about our garden being it’s own environmental system?

mulch garden to prevent weeds and save on water’

Tips for organic gardening P. 108-9

  1. start a new bed using the lasagna method
  2. plant a fisg head in your vegetables
  3. use cover crops to build soil
  4. invest in leaf shredder
  5. compost tea
  6. make sure composat pile is big enough
  7. plant a tree

XVI: Peonies (and other perennials)

A Peonies is native in China P. 110

they grow best in full sun

remember right plant…right place P. 111

tree peonies are woody?

ten easy perennials P. 114

perennial some take a long time to get germinated

most perennials sleep the year they are planted, growth is undergrounds. Then they will creep.

9 easy perennials P. 116

some perennials like to grow in the shade

perennials need fertilizations once or twice year 😦

big perennials might need stakes for support

dead heading tricks the plant so it will not feel it has not set any seed?

perennials look better if they are divided every couple of years

List of 10 heirloom perennials garden P. 120

XVII: Quercus (and other names)

XVII: Quercus (and other names)

it’s another name for an oak

it’s moonflower open its blooms at night

talk about the monkey plant

Carl Linnaeus knew plants for their healing properties’

each plant has two names

P. 124 has a chart of Latin lingo

XVIII: Rhododendrons

also azalas

this was breeded in the 1950s as landscape plants

it wasa cross bred in 1957

most popular is the P.J.M. from Massachusetts Nursey

P. 127 give a chart of deciduous shrubs for hedges

P. 128-9 is shrubs for bloom

rhododendron hold their leaves over winter

shrubs have much lower maintenance then perennials or annuals

XIX: Seeds:

The arrival of seed catalogs just after new years day

though, buying transplants makes sense

a seed is a plant embryo

P. 134 gives a DIY seed-starting mix

starting seeds indoor with lights

be able to rotate the tray when selecting a site

be able to see the indoor plant during the day

will need: containers, potting soil, and seed

for a container you need a hole for the water to drain

start seeds 5 weeks before the last frost

adjust the growing environment from indoors to outdoors

winter sowing seeds

Native plants can be sow in winter for stratification (crack the seed coat) P.138

create a mini-greenhouse with a gallon milk bottle (1/2 gallon) P. 138

XX: tomatoes

Indeterminate or determinate

indeterminate plants keep growing until frost sops them (like 11-footerrs) P. 141

determinate tomato’s grow to their mature size. P. 142

List of favorite tomato varieties is found on P. 142

growing season is too short in the north to plant tomato seed P. 143

tomatoes are grown in large containers 1 plant=5 gallon bucket

they like full sun

warm soil

grow inn late may/early june

tips for growing P. 145

need temp between 70-85 defgrees

if temp is greater than 90 degrees the flowers (blossoms) will fall off,

but will blosssom again when the temp. cools down

below 55 the growth will really slow down

when planting look at air circulation

plant upside down tomatos if you are short of space.

tomatoes need constant watering

when planting a tomatoes remove most of the leaves, leaving only a few on top????

by saving tomato seeds it would be a variety suited for your yard P. 147

book says for a bigger tomatoe you need to prune P. 147

lookout for blossom end rot P. 148-9

don’t forget to rotate crops per season

XXI: Undercover

Maybe keeep plants underground (2-3 feet) in a hotbed

or, make a cold frame P. 151

cold frames extend the growing season

with a cold frame you are keeping the plant/seed undercover

maybe have a glass greenhouse?

XXVII: Vegetables

a victory garden is for the immediate family

victory gardens in WWII provided 40% of US vegetable needs

home grown gardens are good for the taste test

good for teaching where the food comes from

vegetables need good soil for nutrients, sunlight, and water

also need good air circulation and beneficial insects

Soil: organic that drains well (choc. brown and many worms)

Sun: at least 6 hrs. per day

water: 1 inch per week. Water in the morning.

What to plant:

Greens: leaf lettuce

Onions: buy onion sets in spring, harvest when the tops flop over? :(.

cucumbers are ew radishes, beets, carrots: radish and beets are planted in April

Peas: plant once the soil is thawed, use humus rich soil

Beans: grown on a trellis, use pole beans. Plant seeds 1 inch deep.

Tips for growing veggies P. 162

beans increase the soils fertility

try red Russian kale

mulch the garden well

rotate crops

use trellis to have plants grow up and not out

cucumbers are easy yo grow

peppers: keep peppers warm using row covers

corn: when growing corn…if you have different types they need to be spaced/spread out

corn likes hot weather, about three weeks after the weeks after the silks appear….Harvest p.164

XXIII: Weeds

know your weeds P.167

birds poop to spread seed P.168

weedless garden P. 169

mulch

water plants, not beds

stay out of garden

don’t turn soil too much

common weeds P.171

clover: adds nitrogen to the plant

weeds steel from the plants you are trying to grow

you need to prevent weeds from appearing

if you have to, use a herbicide.

XXIV: Xeriscaping

light sprinkles of water do more harm than good

rain gardens have increased in population

before you set up a rain garden, watch how the water flows

water wise plants P. 175

Minnesota has a native cactus p176

Group plants for their watering needs

XXV: Yellow

yellow’s is cheerful

Color tips P. 179

use the hot or cold technique greens and blues or red and orange

for colors think foliage first then flowers

colors are personal p.182

XXVI: Zinnias (and other annuals)

zinnias are the most satisfyingly of annuals

blloms between 2-4 months P. 183

table showing easiest annuals to grow from seed P. 184

zinnnias are not hardy in northern gardens

maybe staart indoor by late april for an earlier bloom p. 184

zinnias need no special soil/sheet talking about container basics is on P.187

annuals want sun, water, and fertilizer

deadheading encourages plant to keep putting out flowers P. 190

Acknowledgements:

Minnesota horticulture

Sources:

2 thoughts on “Northern Gardener (Nov. book)

  1. NORTHERN GARDENER (NOV. BOOK)
    in the 1950’s dwarf trees arrived
    bees are needed for pollination
    Sprinkling has cause more roots to dry up, more mildew
    watering lightly weakens most garden plants P. 19
    the humidity it creates is good for the fungi
    veggies need about 1 inch per week
    keep water close to the soil, not on the leaves. P. 20
    three important numbers:
    cold hardness zone
    frost free date
    first frost date
    refer to chart P.24
    cold winter can suck the moisture out of shrubs and trees P. 25
    states are about 2 degrees warmer now. P. 27
    warm weather means higher dew points
    plus higher humidity and precipitation
    phenology you look at natural phenomenon (like salmon in lake Michigan)
    list of natural causes P. 28
    Break yard into three areas
    1. public
    2. service
    3. private

    10 landscaping tips:
    plant your yard on paper first
    think about mowing your yard
    think masses and odd numbers
    think about views from the inside
    think foliage
    plan bloom
    think color
    eyesores
    plant for your reach
    start with the big stuff
    Walkways 3-4 feet wide
    need a focal point for the garden. I place where your eyes travel to.
    An oak tree is good for pollinators P. 43
    water the tree reguularly
    do a good job pruning. A poorly pruned tree has the tendency to die.
    fruits grow best in the sun
    likes rich organic matter
    for cleaner strawberry’s spread mulch between plants
    Prune your gooseberry plant…any canes over 3 years old should be cut to the ground
    Should only have 4 canes per plant
    spring bulbs are planted in the fall
    rules:
    plant as many as you can
    plant spring bulbs in drifts or masses
    limit yourself to two colors P. 58

    plant bulbs 6 inchesgrow basil apart
    after cutting the blossom you should wait a couple hoursa for th flower to “harden uo” before using in a bouquete. P. 58
    bulbs cure in about 3 weeks P.59. Shake off all the fungi powder
    Dahlias should be planted in warm soil P. 59
    when growing, remove the first flowering bud
    plant Dahlias in mid April
    hardy bulbs do not have to be removed from ground in winter P.60
    Daylilies are not lillies P. 60
    Martagons thrive in the North
    look for a Claude Shride

    herbs attract butterflies P. 62
    easy to grow in containers
    herbs need to be watered
    grow basil and dill (which bees and catapillars enjoy)
    maybe a dream herbs lavender
    P.70-1 have pest listed for garden
    garden crritter chart is on P.73
    decoy plant are those pest like but you don’t care about
    the stickier the plant, the better
    X Juniper and other conifers
    Juniper are among the most adaptable evergreen
    Very easy to grow
    know your conifers: P. 76-8
    creeping
    low
    rounded
    columnar
    wide pyramid
    weeping
    Topiary
    evergreens are slow growing plants
    before buying make sure you have the space for it
    you will have to baby the evergreen for the first couple of years
    If your soil is not poor you probably do not have to fertilize

    Pruning is the biggest care activity
    P.80 gives chart of Minnesota native evergreens
    Bread and butter pickle recipes on P. 82-83
    preserve vegetables
    fermenting with salt at veggies
    fermenting food promotes good gut health P. 84
    once fermentation i complete to food should be put in refridge
    otherwise can your veggies, use a pressure cooker, or freeze foods
    3 rules for preservation
    use your best harvest
    used approved recipes for direction’
    label your work
    lawns are important to the home landscape
    mow about 1 every 10 days in the heart of summer P. 88
    longer grass shades the roots P. 89
    10 tips for a better looking yard P.89
    grass grows from a crown (like a stem)
    spraying the weeds is good for creeping charlie
    need broad leaf herbicide (post emergent)
    Tipping is the best way to get hybrid tea roses through the winter
    What’s tipping??
    rose picture of being prepared for winter P. 94
    home roses put out their best bloom in June
    A rose should be planted 18 inches deep and spread by 24 inchws
    fill in the hole 1/2 way, and then water, then fil in the rest
    keep the rose fully watered for 10 days
    For r blooms:
    try some fertilizer
    use fish emulsion
    well rotted manure or nitrogen elements
    Roses need about a inch of waters per week to survive

    plant disease resistant roses
    Say no to rose cone! P. 97

    Don’t crush Japanese Beetles. The scent will attract more beetles
    their like cycle is 6 weeks p. 97
    maybe plant dill, yarrow? cosmos to influence insects to feed on these plants
    XIV: Native Plants
    they are easy to grow
    they look “wild”
    need to understand the condition of each native plant you grow
    need limited care
    normally have less diseases
    natives attracts birds, butterflies, and insects
    worried about pollinators
    hybridizers are responding to native varieties
    when shopping for plants pick out he “straight species”
    synopsis of ten native plants P. 103-5 (prairie smoke)
    in the 50s the answer to gardening questions always had to do with chemicals
    being organic do we think about our garden being it’s own environmental system?
    mulch garden to prevent weeds and save on water’

    Tips for organic gardening P. 108-9

    start a new bed using the lasagna method
    plant a fisg head in your vegetables
    use cover crops to build soil
    invest in leaf shredder
    compost tea
    make sure composat pile is big enough
    plant a tree
    XVI: Peonies (and other perennials)
    A Peonies is native in China P. 110
    they grow best in full sun
    remember right plant…right place P. 111
    tree peonies are woody?
    ten easy perennials P. 114
    perennial some take a long time to get germinated
    most perennials sleep the year they are planted, growth is undergrounds. Then they will creep.
    9 easy perennials P. 116
    some perennials like to grow in the shade
    perennials need fertilizations once or twice year 😦
    big perennials might need stakes for support
    dead heading tricks the plant so it will not feel it has not set any seed?
    perennials look better if they are divided every couple of years
    List of 10 heirloom perennials garden P. 120
    it’s moonflower open its blooms at night
    talk about the monkey plant
    Carl Linnaeus knew plants for their healing properties’
    each plant has two names
    P. 124 has a chart of Latin lingo
    XVIII: Rhododendrons
    also azalas
    this was breeded in the 1950s as landscape plants
    it was a cross bred in 1957
    most popular is the P.J.M. from Massachusetts Nursey
    P. 127 give a chart of deciduous shrubs for hedges
    P. 128-9 is shrubs for bloom
    rhododendron hold their leaves over winter
    shrubs have much lower maintenance then perennials or annuals
    The arrival of seed catalogs just after new years day
    though, buying transplants makes sense
    a seed is a plant embryo
    P. 134 gives a DIY seed-starting mix
    starting seeds indoor with lights
    be able to rotate the tray when selecting a site
    be able to see the indoor plant during the day
    will need: containers, potting soil, and seed
    for a container you need a hole for the water to drain
    start seeds 5 weeks before the last frost
    adjust the growing environment from indoors to outdoors
    winter sowing seeds
    Native plants can be sow in winter for stratification (crack the seed coat) P.138
    create a mini-greenhouse with a gallon milk bottle (1/2 gallon) P. 138
    Indeterminate or determinate
    indeterminate plants keep growing until frost sops them (like 11-footerrs) P. 141
    determinate tomato’s grow to their mature size. P. 142
    List of favorite tomato varieties is found on P. 142
    growing season is too short in the north to plant tomato seed P. 143
    tomatoes are grown in large containers 1 plant=5 gallon bucket
    they like full sun
    warm soil
    grow inn late may/early june
    tips for growing P. 145
    need temp between 70-85 defgrees
    if temp is greater than 90 degrees the flowers (blossoms) will fall off,
    but will blosssom again when the temp. cools down
    below 55 the growth will really slow down
    when planting look at air circulation
    plant upside down tomatos if you are short of space.
    tomatoes need constant watering
    when planting a tomatoes remove most of the leaves, leaving only a few on top????
    by saving tomato seeds it would be a variety suited for your yard P. 147
    book says for a bigger tomatoe you need to prune P. 147
    lookout for blossom end rot P. 148-9
    don’t forget to rotate crops per season
    or, make a cold frame P. 151
    cold frames extend the growing season
    with a cold frame you are keeping the plant/seed undercover
    victory gardens in WWII provided 40% of US vegetable needs
    home grown gardens are good for the taste test
    food for teaching where the food comes from
    vegetables need good soil for nutrients, sunlight, and water
    also need good air circulation and beneficial insects
    Soil: organic that drains well (choc. brown and many worms)
    Sun: at least 6 hrs. per day
    water: 1 inch per week. Water in the morning.
    What to plant:
    Greens: leaf lettuce
    Onions: buy onion sets in spring, harvest when the tops flop over? :(.
    cucumbers are ew radishes, beets, carrots: radish and beets are planted in April
    Peas: plant once the soil is thawed, use humus rich soil
    Beans: grown on a trellis, use pole beans. Plant seeds 1 inch deep.
    Tips for growing veggies P. 162
    beans increase the soils fertility
    try red Russian kale
    mulch the garden well
    rotate crops
    use trellis to have plants grow up and not out
    cucumbers are easy to grow
    peppers: keep peppers warm using row covers
    corn: when growing corn…if you have different types they need to be spaced/spread out
    corn likes hot weather, about three weeks after the weeks after the silks appear….Harvest p.164
    know your weeds P.167
    birds poop to spread seed P.168
    weedless garden P. 169
    mulch
    water plants, not beds
    stay out of garden
    don’t turn soil too much
    common weeds P.171
    clover: adds nitrogen to the plant
    weeds steea from the plants you are trying to grow
    you need to prevent weeds from appearing
    Minnesota has a native cactus p176
    XXV: Yellow
    yellow’s is cheerful
    Color tips P. 179
    use the hot or cold technique greens and blues or red and orange
    for colors think foliage first then flowers
    colors are personal p.182
    zinnias are the most satisfyingly of annuals
    bloms between 2-4 months P. 183
    table showing easiest annuals to grow from seed P. 184

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